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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

, and water vapor are based on the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory; and the radiation scheme is derived from Morcrette et al. (1998) . Major changes in the model include implicit coupling of the atmosphere to the land surface ( Schulz et al. 2001 ), advective transport ( Lin and Rood 1996 ), a prognostic–statistical scheme for cloud cover ( Tompkins 2002 ), and a rapid radiative-transfer model for longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ). Model details may be found in Roeckner et al. (2003

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

-free ocean. To compute the net heat fluxes, surface downward–upward shortwave and longwave radiations are taken from the ISCCP-FD surface radiation fields that were calculated from a radiative transfer model from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM using ISCCP observations ( Zhang et al. 2004 ). The ISCCP-FD data are 3 hourly, available for the whole globe with 2.5° × 2.5° grid resolution and for the time period July 1983–June 2001. The data were daily averaged and linearly interpolated

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Tomoki Tozuka, Jing-Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, and Toshio Yamagata

et al. (2000) . Since regions of heat gain and those of heat loss are connected to keep the ocean basically in a steady state, heat must be transferred to the south across 15°S ( Figs. 6a and 6b ). In the upper layer (0–50 m), the most dominant heat transport is associated with the southward Ekman heat transport owing to the summer monsoon north of 25°S. This southward transport in summer dominates the northward heat transport in winter and contributes to the heat loss from the Tropics on an

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Annalisa Cherchi, Silvio Gualdi, Swadhin Behera, Jing Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, Toshio Yamagata, and Antonio Navarra

scheme for the advection of water vapor and cloud water ( Rasch and Williamson 1990 ). The parameterization of convection is based on the mass flux concept ( Tiedtke 1989 ) modified following Nordeng (1994) . The Morcrette (1991) radiation scheme is used with the insertion of greenhouse gases and a revised parameterization for water vapor and the optical properties of clouds. The vertical turbulent transfer of momentum, mass, water vapor, and cloud water is based on the similarity theory of Monin

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Vinu K. Valsala and Motoyoshi Ikeda

excessive deepening of convective mixing at the higher latitude found in the model is likely due to the weak density stratification. This large vertical diffusion offsets the underestimates of poleward heat transfer caused by the large horizontal viscosity ( Bryan 1987 ). The model is spun up for 20 yr (sufficient for upper 500-m evolution) forced with monthly wind stresses derived from Hellerman and Rosenstein (1983) . Monthly shortwave flux is derived from Josey et al. (1999) . Latent heat flux is

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