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Georgios Fragkoulidis and Volkmar Wirth

, indicates how fast the wave packet propagates as a whole and reflects the rate at which energy is transferred by the Rossby waves (e.g., Pedlosky 2003 ; Cai and Huang 2013 ). Previous modeling and observational studies have investigated variations of the group velocity field within RWPs and how they reflect dynamical processes of their generation and maintenance ( Pierrehumbert and Swanson 1995 ; Esler and Haynes 1999b ; Chang 2001b ). Especially amid the complexity of the real atmosphere, both the

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Vogel

-biweekly zonal dipole” (QBZD; Mounier et al. 2008 ) and the “Sahel” mode ( Sultan and Janicot 2003 ). Besides radiative processes, the QBZD has been associated with the presence of Kelvin waves, whereas ER waves appear to contribute to the Sahel mode ( Janicot et al. 2010 ). Finally, the variability of the Saharan heat low also modulates rainfall at the time scale of 10–25 days ( Chauvin et al. 2010 ; Roehrig et al. 2011 ). The dominant influence of African easterly waves (AEWs) on precipitation over West

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