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Lei Zhou, Ruomei Ruan, and Raghu Murtugudde

(DSE) and moisture ( q ); that is, h ≡ s + Lq , where s denotes DSE ( Holton and Hakim 2013 ). The budget for DSE is ( Yanai et al. 1973 ; Neelin and Held 1987 ; Sobel et al. 2014 ) (3) ∂ s ∂ t = − 〈 ∇ H ⋅ ( u H s ) 〉 − 〈 ∂ ( ω s ) ∂ p 〉 + Q R + Q SH + LP , where Q R denotes radiative heating, Q SH is the sensible heat flux, and L is the latent heat of vaporization. All terms in Eq. (3) for detoured MJOs are shown in Fig. 8 . Being consistent with the moisture budget, the

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

an El Niño event, and then movement of heat laterally and major adjustments in the vertical distribution of heat and the thermocline during the course of the event as the trade winds relax and the Bjerknes feedback processes kick in. The atmosphere plays a vital role as a bridge among the oceans and to the extratropics through changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated surface fluxes, resulting in a significant diabatic component, as heat is ultimately radiated to space and lost

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

4, we use the radiative transfer scheme of the modified NCAR Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3), the nonlocal planetary boundary layer scheme of Holtslag ( Holtslag et al. 1990 ), the ocean flux scheme of Zeng ( Zeng et al. 1998 ), and the Subgrid Explicit Moisture (SUBEX) scheme for the resolved scale precipitation, which are default schemes of RegCM4 ( Giorgi et al. 2012 ) or applied schemes for RegCM4 simulations of the Southeast Asia domain ( Chung et al. 2018 ). We also performed

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

.1029/RG020i004p00851 . 10.1029/RG020i004p00851 Mitchell , K. , and Coauthors , 2005 : The Community Noah Land-Surface Model (LSM) user’s guide version 2.7.1. NCEP/EMC Tech. Rep., 26 pp. Mlawer , E. J. , S. J. Taubman , P. D. Brown , M. J. Iacono , and S. A. Clough , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 16 663 – 16 682 , doi: 10.1029/97JD00237 . 10.1029/97JD00237 Nakanishi , M

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

-only grid cells, only provides first-approach information on the model rainfall realism. Thus, we also examine the precipitation diurnal cycle, which requires the model to better represent local forcing and local circulation in order to capture it. In the MC rainfall has a very distinct diurnal cycle, especially over the islands. Differential solar radiative heating between different surface types causes local pressure gradients that result in land–sea-breeze circulations, which, in combination with

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