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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

wind and ocean current is ignored here as in the study of Small et al. (2009) . The atmospheric model used in this study is the International Pacific Research Center Regional Climate Model (IRAM). The model is based on hydrostatic, primitive equations and includes physical parameterizations for radiative transfer, shallow and deep convection, and turbulent mixing [see Wang et al. (2003) for details]. The model uses E – ε turbulent closure for vertical diffusion and modified Monin

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Niklas Schneider and Bo Qiu

heat budget balances advection of temperature Θ by vertically averaged, horizontal wind with the combined turbulent and radiative flux of heat taken to be proportional to the difference of boundary layer temperature and the sea surface temperature T with an adjustment rate . Overbars denote vertical averages. Lateral mixing with coefficient is introduced to capture, albeit primitively, the damping by the sea breeze of the lateral gradients of temperature for scales smaller than a Rossby

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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

parameterizations for microphysics (Kessler scheme), convection (Kain and Fritsch scheme), and radiative exchanges (presented below). The nonlocal Yonsei University (YSU) parameterization is used for the atmospheric boundary layer, with a scheme based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory for the surface layer (MM5 similarity revised scheme). The domain is a Cartesian channel of size L x × L y = 9216 km × 9216 km with a horizontal resolution of 18 km. It is periodic in the x direction, with free slip

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

. Hence, it is anticipated that any SST increase/decrease caused by biological heating might alter atmospheric properties considerably via intense turbulent heat exchange and vapor transfer from the sea. In addition, the lower-level air mass modified by SST efficiently spreads to the North Pacific because of steady westerly winds ( Yamamoto and Hirose 2011 ). Biophysical feedback over the Sea of Japan might thereby modify atmospheric (hence oceanic) processes more strongly than currently envisioned

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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

idealized simulations ( Spall 2007 ; Kilpatrick et al. 2014 , 2016 ). The general setting of these analyses was a large-scale wind blowing across (or along) an SST gradient, potentially leading to a change in the stability of the boundary layer. In locally unstable conditions (i.e., winds blowing from cold to warm waters), an increase of the downward transfer of momentum explains the correlation of wind or wind stress with SST anomalies ( Wallace et al. 1989 ; Hayes et al. 1989 ). The mechanism of

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

. , 2015 : Formation of intrathermocline lenses by eddy–wind interaction . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 45 , 606 – 612 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-14-0221.1 . McGillicuddy , D. J. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms . Science , 316 , 1021 – 1026 , doi: 10.1126/science.1136256 . Mlawer , E. J. , S. J. Taubman , P. D. Brown , M. J. Iacono , and S. A. Clough , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated

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Hyodae Seo

WRF uses the modified Tiedtke cumulus parameterization scheme, including CAPE-removal time scale, shallow component, and momentum transport ( Tiedtke 1989 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ). The cloud microphysics is represented by the WRF single-moment 6-class scheme ( Hong and Lim 2006 ) and the planetary boundary layer by the Yonsei University (YSU) nonlocal scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ). The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Goddard scheme ( Chou and Suarez 1999 ) are used

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Shusaku Sugimoto

. Lacis , V. Oinas , and M. I. Mishchenko , 2004 : Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , D19105 , doi: 10.1029/2003JD004457 .

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Kohei Takatama, Shoshiro Minobe, Masaru Inatsu, and R. Justin Small

. All results shown below have been subjected to high-pass filtering, unless otherwise stated. b. Model and experiments The regional atmospheric model used in this study is the International Pacific Research Center Regional Climate model (iRAM). The model includes dynamical processes based on hydrostatic formulation and physical parameterizations such as radiative transfer, shallow and deep convection, and turbulent mixing [see Wang et al. (2003) for details]. The model uses an E – ε turbulent

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

-following sigma levels between the surface and 50 hPa, with 10 layers below 750-m height. Cumulus convection is parameterized with the Kain–Fritsch convection scheme ( Kain 2004 ) and the cloud microphysical process by the single-moment 3-class scheme ( Hong et al. 2004 ). WRF is also run with the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Goddard scheme ( Chou and Suarez 1999 ) for longwave and shortwave radiation transfer. The Noah land surface model is used for the land surface processes

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