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Goodwin Gibbins and Joanna D. Haigh

; Goody 2000 ; Bannon 2015 ; Gibbins and Haigh 2020 ). The Kato and Rose (2020) paper is significant in that it makes a clear distinction between the entropy production rate due to purely nonradiative processes (the “material” entropy production rate) and the entropy production rate due to all internal irreversible processes, including that due to internal radiative transfer. In Gibbins and Haigh (2020) , the latter is labeled the “transfer” entropy production rate. KR2020 is one of the first

Open access
Seiji Kato, Norman G. Loeb, John T. Fasullo, Kevin E. Trenberth, Peter H. Lauritzen, Fred G. Rose, David A. Rutan, and Masaki Satoh

rate (e.g., Held et al. 2019 ) because of, in part, the existence of a significant energy balance residual when satellite energy flux products are integrated. While the total energy is conserved, energy is converted and transferred in various different forms in the atmosphere. Although the regional energy balance in the atmosphere is largely achieved with diabatic heating by precipitation, radiative cooling, and dry static energy divergence by dynamics ( Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a ; Kato et al

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Seiji Kato and Fred G. Rose

. The slope of sea surface temperature derived from Reynolds sea surface temperature ( Reynolds et al. 2002 ), entropy storage, and entropy production by irreversible process (including radiative process) is shown in Table 1 . Table 1. Slope of linear regression line with Earth absorptivity a and 95% confidence interval. In summary, when we revisit the result of KR2020 with the recognition of a nonsteady state pointed out by the comment, the KR2020 result indicates (5) 0 < d Σ ˙ irr d a < d d

Open access
Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Yun Hang, Alexander V. Matus, and Zhien Wang

satellites have significantly improved radiative flux data ( Wielicki et al. 1996 ). The ISCCP D1 cloud product coupled new cloud retrieval methods to radiative transfer models to further estimate the radiative impacts of cloud types at the surface (SFC) ( Chen et al. 2000 ). Likewise, the CERES Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) product has been developed to derive the shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes on a global scale ( Gupta et al. 1999 ). These datasets have been extensively validated

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Norman G. Loeb, Hailan Wang, Fred G. Rose, Seiji Kato, William L. Smith Jr, and Sunny Sun-Mack

measurements. A one-time adjustment within observational uncertainty is made to radiative fluxes at the TOA to ensure that the global mean net TOA flux for July 2005–June 2015 is consistent with an in situ based estimate of Earth’s energy imbalance ( Loeb et al. 2018a ). EBAF-SFC provides surface radiative fluxes calculated from a radiative transfer model initialized with surface, cloud, and atmospheric property retrievals that have been adjusted within uncertainty to ensure computed monthly mean TOA

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Jake J. Gristey, J. Christine Chiu, Robert J. Gurney, Keith P. Shine, Stephan Havemann, Jean-Claude Thelen, and Peter G. Hill

optical depth ( Jakob and Tselioudis 2003 ; Williams and Tselioudis 2007 ; Williams and Webb 2009 ; Oreopoulos et al. 2014 ), but has not been directly applied to reflectance spectra. This unique approach provides the opportunity to examine cloud regimes emerging solely from spectral radiative effects, providing new insights at scales relevant to various satellite observation, numerical weather prediction, and climate modeling communities. The satellite datasets and radiative transfer tools used to

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Seiji Kato and Fred G. Rose

) . Computation of entropy production We compute shortwave and longwave upward and downward irradiances hourly at 35 levels in the atmosphere (plus cloud-top and cloud-base heights, depending on retrieved heights) for every equal-area grid with a radiative transfer model ( Fu and Liou 1993 ; Rose et al. 2006 , 2013 ). For shortwave irradiance computations, a gamma distribution is used to express the distribution of hourly cloud optical thickness in an equal-area grid separated by 4 different cloud types. We

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Christopher M. Thomas, Bo Dong, and Keith Haines

from the Objectively Analyzed Air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project: Latent and sensible heat fluxes, ocean evaporation, and related surface meteorological variables. Tech. Rep. OA-2008-01, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 64 pp. Zhang , Y. , W. B. Rossow , A. A. Lacis , V. Oinas , and M. I. Mishchenko , 2004 : Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data

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Allison Hogikyan, Meghan F. Cronin, Dongxiao Zhang, and Seiji Kato

of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data . J. Geophys. Res. , 109 , D19105 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004457 . 10.1029/2003JD004457

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

an El Niño event, and then movement of heat laterally and major adjustments in the vertical distribution of heat and the thermocline during the course of the event as the trade winds relax and the Bjerknes feedback processes kick in. The atmosphere plays a vital role as a bridge among the oceans and to the extratropics through changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated surface fluxes, resulting in a significant diabatic component, as heat is ultimately radiated to space and lost

Open access