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Z. Long, W. Perrie, J. Gyakum, D. Caya, and R. Laprise

. , and Hostetler S. W. , 1993 : Toward the simulation of the effects of the Great Lakes on regional climate. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 121 , 1373 – 1387 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<1373:TTSOTE>2.0.CO;2 Beletsky, D. , and Schwab D. J. , 2001 : Modeling circulation and thermal structure in Lake Michigan: Annual cycle and interannual variability. J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 19745 – 19771 . 10.1029/2000JC000691 Blanken, P. D. , Rouse W. R. , and Schertzer W. M. , 2003 : Enhancement of

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Lingjing Zhu, Jiming Jin, and Yimin Liu

at a rate of 46.5 mm decade −1 ( Zhu et al. 2019 ). Therefore, the effects of TP lakes and their changes on local and regional climate are worth characterizing and quantifying. Due to their wide distribution and ability to modulate energy and water transfer, TP lakes are likely to affect TP precipitation at diurnal and seasonal scales. TP precipitation is generated mainly by small (<100 km 2 ) and medium (100–10 000 km 2 ) convective systems ( Hirose and Nakamura 2005 ) and characterized by a

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O. A. Tuinenburg, R. W. A. Hutjes, T. Stacke, A. Wiltshire, and P. Lucas-Picher

regions, the fate of the evaporation from the focus regions, the Ganges River basin moisture budget, and the large-scale effects of irrigation. Section 4 presents the discussion and conclusions. 2. Methods In the current study, the atmospheric effects of irrigation in India are compared using four atmospheric models [HIRHAM, Hadley Centre Regional Climate Model (HadRM), Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), and ECHAM] with explicit irrigation application. As a basis for irrigation, the global

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Telmo Cosme António Sumila, Gabrielle Ferreira Pires, Vitor Cunha Fontes, and Marcos Heil Costa

effects on every year after deforestation. We have analyzed the effects of deforestation on the sources of moisture and precipitation on regions that have significant economic activities that depend on rainfall. We conclude that the geographic location of the region is an important determinant of the resiliency of the regional climate to deforestation-induced regional climate change. The more continental the geographic location, the more resilient the climate is to deforestation, and the impacts of

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Gerhard Smiatek, Severin Kaspar, and Harald Kunstmann

periods 1961–90 (circles), 2021–50 (triangles), and 2070–99 (squares). Additional adverse effects on regional water availability are expected from warming-induced changes to evapotranspiration. On the other hand, pan evaporation observations in various countries show steadily decreasing values for the past 50 years ( Barnett et al. 2005 ). Ohmura and Wild (2002) point out that a hemisphere evaporates more in winter than in summer, and there are large differences between the evaporation from land and

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Maximiliano Viale and Mario N. Nuñez

precipitation events in the Andes is inferred by the recurrent downslope wind extending fully to the low-leeward side ( Table 6 ). Downslope wind (named “zonda” in South America; Norte et al. 2008 ; Seluchi et al. 2003 ) and associated föehn effects (i.e., a sharply increased dewpoint depression) were recorded north of 34°S by at least one (two) low-lee station(s) in 80% (67%) of 46 total heavy precipitation events. In addition, regional features can be noticed in Table 6 as the higher frequency of

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Fred Moshary, and Michael Piasecki

. Since global mean air temperature increases have different effects at regional as compared to local spatial scales ( IPCC 2007 ), effects on lake surface area are specific to how global warming impacts characteristics of local water basins ( Wei et al. 2005 ; Croley and Lewis 2006 ; Yu and Shen 2010 ; Troin et al. 2010 ). Additional factors contributing to the lake growth are LCLU changes, most specifically deforestation and use of land and water agriculture, which affect the lake surface area in

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Janice L. Bytheway, Mimi Hughes, Kelly Mahoney, and Rob Cifelli

a few kilometers has not yet been explored, possibly because the uncertainties at lower resolutions and longer accumulation periods are known to be large. Operational entities in this region such as the NWS and California Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC) rely heavily on gauge-based QPE adjusted for orographic effects, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM; Daly et al. 1994 , 2017 ) for forecast evaluation on scales from several hours to daily

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Diana L. Verseghy and Murray D. MacKay

, leading to marked differences in the surface energy balance (e.g., Verseghy et al. 2017 ). The effects of large lakes on local weather and climate have long been recognized (e.g., Notaro et al. 2013 ; Balsamo et al. 2012 ; Steenburgh et al. 2000 ; Lofgren 1997 ). As a result, efforts have been underway for a number of years to incorporate parameterizations for inland lakes into regional and global climate models. To avoid undue computational complexity, these efforts have generally made use of 1D

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Tomohito J. Yamada, Myong-In Lee, Masao Kanamitsu, and Hideki Kanamaru

(US10)] and carefully examine the representation of diurnal rainfall in the boreal summer in the contiguous United States and northern Mexico. One of the major motivations of this study is to examine whether the broad-scale features in the rainfall are reasonably reproduced by explicitly resolving subgrid-scale convection and precipitation process. 2. Model and dynamical downscaling procedure This study used the Regional Spectral Model (RSM; Juang and Kanamitsu 1994 ) that originated from a model

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