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Hung-Chi Kuo and R. T. Williams

2986 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 120Boundary Effects in Regional Spectral Models HUNG-CHI KU0Department of Atmospheric Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China R. T. WILLIAMSDepartment of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California(Manuscript received 14 January 1992, in final form 6 April 1992)ABSTRACT The

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Gary T. Bates, Filippo Giorgi, and Steven W. Hostetler

MaY 1993 BATES ET AL. 1373Toward the Simulation of the Effects of the Great Lakes on Regional Climate GARY T. BATES AND FILIPPO GIORGINational Center for Atmospheric Research, * Boulder, Colorado STEVEN W. HOSTETLER U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, Colorado (Manuscript received 19 June 1992, in final form 31 October 1992) ABSTRACT

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Samar Minallah and Allison L. Steiner

months are higher than what is observed ( Figs. 4d and 13b , respectively). Fig . 13. (top) African Great Lakes regional spatial patterns of total precipitation in the month of February (2001–18 averaged) for (a) ERA-Interim, (b) ERA5, and (c) CRU TS4.04. (bottom) Lake input parameters for ERA5 include (d) lake cover (fraction), (e) lake depth (m), and (f) lake cover–depth product. In (e) and (f), magnitudes extend beyond the shown scale. d. Effects of lake representation on precipitation patterns

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Changhai Liu, Kyoko Ikeda, Gregory Thompson, Roy Rasmussen, and Jimy Dudhia

believed that they are less important in the winter than in the summer due to the weak energy exchanges between the surface and overlying atmosphere, shallow PBLs, and weak solar heating. The present study focuses on the wintertime precipitation over the Colorado Headwaters region because of the effects of complex terrain, abundant snowfall amount, and its significance as a regional water resource. In addition, a relatively dense snow-telemetry network facilitates the verification of model results

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Stanley G. Benjamin

330 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 114Some Effects of Surface Heating and Topography on the Regional Severe Storm Environment. Part H: Two-Dimensional Idealized Experiments STANLEY G. BENJAMINNational Center for .4tmospheric Research,* Boulder, CO, and Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Systems, NOAA, Environmental Research Laboratories

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Scott D. Rudlosky and Henry E. Fuelberg

1. Introduction Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distributions are strongly influenced by seasonal and regional variations in atmospheric conditions. Thus, analysis of CG characteristics and their relation to specific changes in atmospheric conditions can help to better define the CG threat. Many studies have described CG variability on both the seasonal and regional scales; however, ambiguity still remains in the relationships between atmospheric conditions, storm-scale processes, and CG

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Michael Notaro, Azar Zarrin, Steve Vavrus, and Val Bennington

, G. P. Byrd , and D. Schleede , 1998 : Mescoscale model simulation of the 4–5 January 1995 lake-effect snowstorm . Wea. Forecasting , 13 , 893 – 920 . Bates , G. T. , F. Giorgi , and S. W. Hostetler , 1993 : Toward the simulation of the effects of the Great Lakes on regional climate . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 121 , 1373 – 1387 . Bates , G. T. , S. W. Hostetler , and F. Giorgi , 1995 : Two-year simulation of the Great Lakes region with a coupled modeling system . Mon. Wea

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Bingcheng Wan, Zhiqiu Gao, Fei Chen, and Chungu Lu

1. Introduction The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest plateau on Earth, plays an important role in global and regional climate, especially enhancing the East Asian summer monsoon that brought abundant precipitation to China, Korea, and Japan ( Zhisheng et al. 2001 ; Liu and Yin 2002 ; Jiang et al. 2008 ). The TP acts as the primary heating source before the rainy season ( Yanai et al. 1992 ; Ye and Wu 1998 ) and greatly influences the onset of East Asian summer monsoon and the precipitation

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Steve Vavrus, Michael Notaro, and Azar Zarrin

-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set . J. Great Lakes Res. , 35 , 23 – 29 . Lavoie , R. L. , 1972 : A mesoscale numerical model of lake-effect storms . J. Atmos. Sci. , 29 , 1025 – 1040 . Lofgren , B. , 1997 : Simulated effects of idealized Laurentian Great Lakes on regional and large-scale climate . J. Climate , 10 , 2847 – 2858 . Maesaka , T. , G. W. K. Moore , Q. Liu , and K. Tsuboki , 2006 : A simulation of a lake effect

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Maurício I. Oliveira, Ernani L. Nascimento, and Carolina Kannenberg

because of their key role in the meridional transport of warm moist air to the La Plata basin and in the regional severe weather context. However, the sensitivity analysis is also performed for (the less investigated) southerly LLJs. Although the main scope of this study is on the LLJ detection issue, some insights on the forcing mechanisms of LLJs in South America are also gained. 2. Limitations in the traditional LLJ identification criteria To illustrate the limitations in the BC1 and SNS02

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