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Kerry Emanuel, Frauke Hoss, David Keith, Zhiming Kuang, Julie Lundquist, and Lee Miller

standardized modeling intercomparisons to evaluate approaches to representing wind turbine impacts could be beneficial. An important goal should be a quantification of climate impacts per TW power generated for comparison to climate effects of other power sources. Climate effects of wind farms also need to be considered for local- to regional-scale deployments. For example, satellite data and field campaigns suggest slightly higher nocturnal temperatures within and downwind of presently operational wind

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Markku Rummukainen, Burkhardt Rockel, Lars Bärring, Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen, and Marcus Reckermann

Research on regional climate modeling has remarkably expanded during the last few years ( Arritt and Rummukainen 2011 ; Rummukainen 2010 ; WCRP 2014 ). This expansion can be seen in the increased number of research groups and world regions of interest to modelers and end users. But perhaps more importantly, the models used by the community are refined with additional complexity and operate on an increasingly finer spatial and vertical resolution. While these changes have given rise to new

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Jonathan Pleim, Rohit Mathur, S. T. Rao, Jerome Fast, and Alexander Baklanov

the following: improved numerical weather prediction by including the effects of aerosols and gases on radiation and cloud microphysics as well as improving satellite retrievals and data assimilation for NWP operations by providing more accurate profiles of aerosols and radiatively active gases; regional climate–chemistry modeling, including direct and indirect radiative forcing from short-lived climate forcers (SLCF); improved air quality modeling due to closer coupling of dynamical and chemical

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Pedro A. Jimenez, Jordi Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jorge Navarro, and J. Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco

radiation, microphysics, and the representation of the effects produced by cumulus were analyzed in relation to regional climate modeling. Other representations such as the interaction of unresolved topography with the surface wind were also shown to be of relevance to provide more realistic atmospheric simulations ( Jimenez and Dudhia 2012 ). Special attention was paid to analyzing the physics of land surface models (LSMs). The importance of an accurate simulation of precipitation/snow process in order

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Yun Qian, Charles Jackson, Filippo Giorgi, Ben Booth, Qingyun Duan, Chris Forest, Dave Higdon, Z. Jason Hou, and Gabriel Huerta

, such as the effects of uncertain initial and boundary conditions, uncertain physics, and the limitations of observational records. Progress in quantitatively estimating uncertainties in hydrologic, land surface, and atmospheric models at both regional and global scales was also reviewed. The application of uncertainty quantification (UQ) concepts to coupled climate system models is still in its infancy. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) multimodel ensemble currently represents the

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Nianliang Cheng, Yunting Li, Dawei Zhang, and Fan Meng

) characteristics and causes of regional haze events, 2) techniques for haze weather and air pollution forecasting, 3) new technologies for air pollution monitoring, 4) air pollution causes and environmental and health effects, 5) interactions between air pollution and climate change, 6) urbanization on the atmospheric environment and meteorology, and 7) air quality assurance and air pollution alerts. Prediction of heavy air pollution and its effects on emergency or security measures have drawn much attention

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Amadou Bokoye, Louise Bussières, André Cotnoir, Jacinthe Lacroix, and Luc Vescovi

: Montreal, Quebec, Canada CLIMATE AND SOCIETY. “Society has always had to deal with climate variability, including extreme weather. But the combined effects of climate change, population increase, urbanization, and environmental degradation present new and greater challenges,” said Michel Jarraud, the WMO Secretary-General. Disasters linked to a weather–climate change continuum represent those which most affect human life, goods, and ecosystems across the world. To make a decision about and adapt to

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P. Michael Link, Jürgen Böhner, Hermann Held, and Jürgen Scheffran

trigger local or regional conflicts if neglected. Model simulations indicate that land-use disputes may also arise if large shares of agricultural land are devoted to growing energy crops. Not only does this increase the competition with agricultural food production, but land conversion to expand energy crop production is also likely to have adverse effects on biodiversity in surrounding ecosystems. On the other hand, bioenergy can help to successfully implement the energy transition in small cities

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Toshi Matsui, Charles Ichoku, Cynthia Randles, Tianle Yuan, Arlindo M. da Silva, Peter Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Robert Levy, Andrew Sayer, Mian Chin, David Giles, Brent Holben, Ellsworth Welton, Thomas Eck, and Lorraine Remer

NASA EOS and other U.S. and non-U.S. programs ushered in a golden era in aerosol research. NASA has been a leader in providing global aerosol characterizations through observations from satellites, ground networks, and field campaigns, as well as from global and regional modeling. AeroCenter ( ), which was formed in 2002 to address the many facets of aerosol research in a collaborative manner, is an interdisciplinary union of researchers (~200 members) at NASA GSFC

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T. J. Bracegirdle, N. A. N. Bertler, A. M. Carleton, Q. Ding, C. J. Fogwill, J. C. Fyfe, H. H. Hellmer, A. Y. Karpechko, K. Kusahara, E. Larour, P. A. Mayewski, W. N. Meier, L. M. Polvani, J. L. Russell, S. L. Stevenson, J. Turner, J. M. van Wessem, W. J. van de Berg, and I. Wainer

important consideration is the variety of its uses and applications, ranging, for instance, from hemispheric-scale atmospheric dynamics to regional ice-shelf and ice-sheet processes. Further, the observational data against which models are assessed is often limited in both time and space. Therefore, when assessing multidecadal projections of future change, model evaluation should include consideration of the following factors: i) expert judgment on whether important processes are represented correctly

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