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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Clive A. McAlpine

Observational and modeling studies clearly demonstrate that land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) (e.g., Fig. 1 ) plays an important biogeophysical and biogeochemical role in the climate system from the landscape to regional and even continental scales ( Foley et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Luyssaert et al. 2014 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). The biogeochemical effect on the carbon budget is well recognized in both the scientific and policy-making communities. The

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John P. Dawson, Bryan J. Bloomer, Darrell A. Winner, and Christopher P. Weaver

longer-term monthly, seasonal, and annual averages or by grouping various regions or PM species together. For example, Pye et al. (2009) simulated large seasonal and regional effects (on the order of several μg m −3 ) that mostly negated one another when averaged over the entire year and summed to account for total PM. Nevertheless, some common general conclusions emerged from these initial studies: Very broadly, for sulfate, these earlier modeling studies consistently found that simulated

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Cenlin He, Olivia Clifton, Emmi Felker-Quinn, S. Ryan Fulgham, Julieta F. Juncosa Calahorrano, Danica Lombardozzi, Gemma Purser, Mj Riches, Rebecca Schwantes, Wenfu Tang, Benjamin Poulter, and Allison L. Steiner

limited process understanding and hence predictive ability. Vegetation and soil are the interface between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems through emissions and wet and dry deposition of air pollutants and related compounds. F ig . 1. Demonstration of key elements and processes in air pollution–terrestrial ecosystem interactions, including vegetation and soil uptake and emissions of air pollutants and precursors, in-canopy turbulence, and effects of human activities, fires, and meteorology

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Jennifer A. Francis

, is challenging. As AA intensifies, however, evidence of its impacts is becoming clearer, particularly the regional and seasonal variations, and its dependence on the background state ( Overland et al. 2016 ; Sung et al. 2016 ; Nakamura et al. 2016b ). The abrupt flip of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index from negative to positive in late 2013, coinciding with substantial ice loss in the Arctic’s Pacific sector (Chukchi–Beaufort Seas), provides an example of this relationship

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Daniel B. Wright, Constantine Samaras, and Tania Lopez-Cantu

release of these statistics, titled Technical Paper 40, was published by the U.S. Weather Bureau in 1961 ( Hershfield 1961 ). Its successor, Atlas 14, has been rolled out on a regional basis by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) since 2004, and is now nearly complete ( Perica et al. 2018 ). Atlas 14 analyzes historical data to provide rainfall amounts for storms up to the 1,000-yr recurrence interval (i.e., a 0.1% annual likelihood or the 1,000-yr storm), along with confidence

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Francisco J. Tapiador, Rémy Roca, Anthony Del Genio, Boris Dewitte, Walt Petersen, and Fuqing Zhang

( Stephens et al. 2012 ). Until these are reconciled, models cannot be overly influenced by mean-state biases relative to these estimates. It is important to note here that mean-state biases in global models are vastly overrated as a basis for deciding which models have the best predictive power, because of the variety of tuning approaches and metrics chosen for analysis ( Schmidt et al. 2017 ). Regarding the potential role of precipitation in trend detection, compensating effects among different

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Daniel E. Wolfe and R. J. Lataitis

development and testing of novel remote sensing instrumentation, WPL also realized the need for the transfer of associated technologies, not only of the instruments but of the products they produced. This effort focused on developing what was called a Prototype Regional Observing and Forecasting Service, later renamed the Project for Regional Observing and Forecasting Service (PROFS; Schlatter et al. 1985 ), a forerunner of the work now conducted in ESRL’s Global Systems Division with the Advanced

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Florian Rauser, Mohammad Alqadi, Steve Arowolo, Noël Baker, Joel Bedard, Erik Behrens, Nilay Dogulu, Lucas Gatti Domingues, Ariane Frassoni, Julia Keller, Sarah Kirkpatrick, Gaby Langendijk, Masoumeh Mirsafa, Salauddin Mohammad, Ann Kristin Naumann, Marisol Osman, Kevin Reed, Marion Rothmüller, Vera Schemann, Awnesh Singh, Sebastian Sonntag, Fiona Tummon, Dike Victor, Marcelino Q. Villafuerte, Jakub P. Walawender, and Modathir Zaroug

. The range of aspects that seamless environmental prediction systems will need to address extends from near-real-time warnings for extreme events (regional pollution effects, tropical cyclones, floods, etc.) to long-term effects, such as ocean acidification and consequent impacts on fisheries. The user groups of these seamless environmental prediction systems will be similarly diverse: from farmers who require short-term thunderstorm forecasts to policy makers who may have to weigh the risk of

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William B. Rossow and John J. Bates

effects of clouds). For ISCCP these objectives were accomplished by adding the activities of research-oriented data processing centers for cross calibrating and analyzing the satellite radiances to the operational data collection activities of the separate satellite agencies ( Schiffer and Rossow 1983 , 1985 ). ISCCP data products ( Schiffer and Rossow 1985 ; Rossow and Schiffer 1991 , 1999 ) have been used to provide information about and monitor global/regional environmental conditions and

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Andrew Hoell, Britt-Anne Parker, Michael Downey, Natalie Umphlett, Kelsey Jencso, F. Adnan Akyuz, Dannele Peck, Trevor Hadwen, Brian Fuchs, Doug Kluck, Laura Edwards, Judith Perlwitz, Jon Eischeid, Veva Deheza, Roger Pulwarty, and Kathryn Bevington

that widespread drought was a favored outcome in the region. Impacts Impacts of the 2017 flash drought on the U.S. northern Great Plains and the Canadian Prairies were varied and costly. Here, we outline drought impacts on agriculture, human health, fire, ecosystems, water quality, tourism, and infrastructure ( Jencso et al. 2019 ). We recognize that the impacts of a disaster broadly include both market-based and nonmarket effects ( National Research Council 1999 ). The temporal and spatial

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