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Zachary A. Holden, W. Matt Jolly, Alan Swanson, Dyer A. Warren, Kelsey Jencso, Marco Maneta, Mitchell Burgard, Chris Gibson, Zachary Hoylman, and Erin L. Landguth

. 1995 ; Whiteman, 2000 ). Furthermore, surface temperatures vary dynamically in time and space; the magnitude of cold air drainage depends on both landscape position and regional atmospheric patterns, and variations in daytime temperature vary as a function of the interaction between surface moisture and incident radiation ( Holden et al. 2016 ). In very rugged terrain, these topographic effects are fine-grained and are not fully resolved by the gridded datasets that are widely used for assessing

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Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, James Haywood, Robert Wood, Stuart Piketh, Martin Hipondoka, and Paola Formenti

aerosol nucleating the clouds also alter the cloud microphysics and the clouds' likelihood of producing rain. Other effects exist, for example, from the moisture associated with the aerosol layer, while further effects may still remain to be discovered. At a larger scale, the change in atmospheric warming from the smoke affects the neighboring precipitation distribution. The smoke’s influence on the surface energy budget ultimately affects the equatorial climate and its variability through the trade

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Adrian M. Tompkins, Douglas J. Parker, Sylvester Danour, Leonard Amekudzi, Caroline L. Bain, Abdul Dominguez, Michael W. Douglas, Andreas H. Fink, David I. F. Grimes, Matthew Hobby, Peter Knippertz, Peter J. Lamb, Kathryn J. Nicklin, and Charles Yorke

schools were designed to help launch the undergraduate meteorology program of KNUST and benefited from the significant increase in research activity regarding West African weather and climate that has arisen from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) program. Both schools lasted two weeks and included a broad program of lectures, hands-on classes in regional forecasting and climate applications modeling, and a variety of field measurement activities with associated student projects

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Jose A. Marengo, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Peter M. Cox, Richard Betts, Duarte Costa, Neil Kaye, Lauren T. Smith, Lincoln M. Alves, and Vera Reis

ability of policymakers to act on any improved understanding of Earth system processes. Such capacity, especially in tropical countries, is critical for developing mitigation and adaptation policies to cope with the effects of climate perturbations. This is central for the objectives of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS; http://gfcs.wmo.int/ ) established during the 2009 World Climate Conference, which was conceived to promote the sharing of science-based knowledge with decision

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Xiaodong Chen and Faisal Hossain

range of ensemble estimates. For the moisture maximization and other methods to work properly, high-resolution precipitation data that fully resolve the impact of surface topography and land conditions, together with related meteorological fields (e.g., precipitable water or surface dewpoint temperature), are required. These data are available through dynamic downscaling of ESM (i.e., regional climate model) output. Alternatively, they can be obtained via statistical downscaling techniques. In the

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Kirsten Lackstrom, Amanda Farris, David Eckhardt, Nolan Doesken, Henry Reges, Julian Turner, Kelly Helm Smith, and Rebecca Ward

Coastal Carolinas DEWS program was designed to improve understanding of coastal drought, CISA initially targeted groups located in coastal areas. CISA conducted three in-person events and four webinars between August 2013 and June 2014. The 112 attendees included CoCoRaHS volunteers, master naturalists, master gardeners, and other environmentally focused citizen scientists. Due to the strong interest of CoCoRaHS observers, CISA expanded the recruitment effort with that group. State and regional

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Ethan L. Nelson, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Adele L. Igel, and Susan C. van den Heever

effects of attenuation and require an understanding of more complex radiative interactions, namely Mie scattering. Additionally, satellite instruments of any sort are limited by size and power given the requirements of spacecraft propulsion, instrument operation, and data communication. That means an educational tool on this subject should convey information not just about the synergy of multifrequency active instruments but also the trade-offs between instrument sensitivity, sensor complexity, cost

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Chun-Chieh Wu

addressing the issues with TC intensity evolution, interaction with terrain, and quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs). The rainfall pattern over Taiwan can be reasonably simulated in these models, provided that the model and terrain resolution is sufficient and the TC track in the model does not excessively deviate from observations. Several high-resolution regional models run in real time yielded good track forecasts of Morakot and captured the more prominent characteristics of rainfall in Taiwan

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