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Peter G. Veals, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

others it may be <1, with lowland snowfall exceeding that at upper elevations (e.g., Magono et al. 1966 ; Ishihara et al. 1989 ; Nakai and Endoh 1995 ; Eito et al. 2005 ; Nakai et al. 2008 ; Campbell et al. 2016 ). In this paper, we examine the factors affecting such inland and orographic variations in lake-effect precipitation east of Lake Ontario and over Tug Hill. This represents a unique problem, requiring a synthesis of knowledge of lake-effect precipitation, coastal and inland effects

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Seth Saslo and Steven J. Greybush

sensitivities to surface and smaller-scale features. For instance, surface wind speeds and lake fetch can very often predict the morphology of an LES event ( Laird et al. 2003 ; Laird and Kristovich 2004 ). Ice cover strongly affects these storms by controlling heat fluxes from the lake ( Cordeira and Laird 2008 ; Gerbush et al. 2008 ) and by modifying the low-level winds through frictional effects ( Wright et al. 2013 ), changing the precipitation field. Regions of complex topography can affect LES

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W. James Steenburgh and Leah S. Campbell

upstream water bodies, direction and strength of the large-scale flow, shoreline geometry, differential surface heating and roughness, and orographic effects (e.g., Passarelli and Braham 1981 ; Hjelmfelt 1990 ; Laird et al. 2003a , b ; Alcott and Steenburgh 2013 ). For example, bays and coastline concavities are preferred regions for snowband initiation due to thermally forced convergence (e.g., Atlas et al. 1983 ; Andersson and Gustafsson 1994 ; Mazon et al. 2015 ). During geostrophic flow

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Peter G. Veals and W. James Steenburgh

to provide new insights into lake-effect precipitation east of Lake Ontario and over Tug Hill, with relevance for operational forecasting, regional climate applications, and improved knowledge of lake-effect and orographic precipitation processes. The methods used for the radar-based climatology are described in section 2 , with detailed analysis of the regional lake-effect characteristics and influence of Tug Hill presented in section 3 . Conclusions and future work are summarized in section

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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

. Fritsch , 1994 : Lake-aggregate mesoscale disturbances. Part II: A case study of the effects on regional and synoptic-scale weather systems . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 75 , 1793 – 1811 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1994)075<1793:LAMDPI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1994)075<1793:LAMDPI>2.0.CO;2 Sousounis , P. J. , and G. E. Mann , 2000 : Lake-aggregate mesoscale disturbances. Part V: Impacts on lake-effect precipitation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 128 , 728 – 745 , doi: 10

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Daniel T. Eipper, George S. Young, Steven J. Greybush, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

to the reflectivity images used in the study, with the numbers representing the following sites: 1, Buffalo, NY (KBUF); 2, Binghamton, NY (KBGM); 3, Montague, NY (KTYX); 4, Albany, NY (KENX); and 5, Burlington, VT (KCXX). Our strategy for identifying LLAP-band samples, or snapshots , began with inspecting CAPPI reflectivity images every 3 h, to match the output frequency of the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR; discussed below). We first determined hours for which the reflectivity image

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Leah S. Campbell and W. James Steenburgh

1. Introduction Lake-effect snowstorms generated over the Great Lakes of North America and other bodies of water can produce intense, extremely localized snowfall (e.g., Andersson and Nilsson 1990 ; Steenburgh et al. 2000 ; Eito et al. 2005 ; Laird et al. 2009 ; Kindap 2010 ). Forecasters still struggle, however, to accurately predict the timing and location of the heaviest snowfall during lake-effect events, which disrupt local and regional transportation, education, utilities, and

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Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Peter G. Veals, Theodore W. Letcher, and Justin R. Minder

is to examine the enhancement of precipitation over Tug Hill during the lengthy lake-effect storm sampled during OWLeS intensive observing period 2b (IOP2b). Although Minder et al. (2015) provide a broad analysis of the effects of Tug Hill during this case, we focus here on intrastorm variations in precipitation enhancement over Tug Hill, their relationship to lake-effect precipitation mode, and the contrasting inland transition in storm characteristics responsible for periods of high and low

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Daniel T. Eipper, Steven J. Greybush, George S. Young, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

the thermodynamic structure of each band and environmental baroclinity. The density potential temperature θ ρ accounts for the effects of both water vapor and hydrometeors on potential temperature; the formula for its computation is provided in Markowski and Richardson [2010 , their Eq. (2.22)]. We chose to position the cross sections over the approximate landfall location and inland portion of each band, where greater human impacts occur. Specifically, the cross sections were generated every 0

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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

to 333° at 1554 UTC and then to 325° at 1730 UTC. This shift in winds has implications for the development of the LE bands over SL and CL, as will be shown later. Notwithstanding the ~50-km fetch of snow-covered land between Lake Ontario and Stanley, there is no evidence of a low-level stable layer in the sounding. Regionally, winds at the surface were generally out of the north or northwest at about 5 m s −1 , accompanied by very cold air with surface temperatures of −15° to −20°C ( Figs. 3b

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