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Zhihui Che
,
Lin Mu
, and
Linhao Zhong

constant volume, and acceleration of gravity, respectively. The term P 0 is defined as 1000 hPa; P is the air pressure; θ is potential temperature. The overbar and prime indicate the climatological mean and the synoptic-scale disturbance, respectively. Unless otherwise specified, regression analysis and composite analysis in this study are based on DJF mean data. The two-sided Student’s t test is used to examine the significance of the correlation, regression, and composite analysis. The

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Morio Nakayama
,
Hisashi Nakamura
, and
Fumiaki Ogawa

: Downstream suppression of baroclinic waves . J. Climate , 34 , 919 – 930 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0483.1 . Chang , E. K. M. , 1993 : Downstream development of baroclinic waves as inferred from regression analysis . J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 2038 – 2053 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2038:DDOBWA>2.0.CO;2 . Enomoto , T. , A. Kuwano-Yoshida , N. Komori , and W. Ohfuchi , 2008 : Description of AFES 2: Improvements for high-resolution and coupled simulations

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Fabien Desbiolles
,
Agostino N. Meroni
,
Lionel Renault
, and
Claudia Pasquero

in which the air parcel is in contact with the SST forcing structure decreases with increasing U , possibly resulting in a drop of the regression coefficient. Further analysis will be necessary in subsequent works in order to verify the given interpretation. In terms of the dependence on the atmospheric stability, the DMM coupling coefficient is found to peak in near-neutral conditions, confirming that the strongest atmospheric response is found when the crossing of an SST front happens near

Open access
R. J. Small
,
V. Rousseau
,
R. Parfitt
,
L. Laurindo
,
L. O’Neill
,
R. Masunaga
,
N. Schneider
, and
P. Chang

, since, on rain-free days, there is dominant surface divergence even though the Laplacian of SST field would indicate NSWC via the pressure-adjustment mechanism. Further, from analysis of daily data, there was found to be negligible sensitivity of the sign of the surface divergence field to the sign of ∇ 2 SST. Results presented on the relationship of ∇ 2 SST to the divergence field in the presence of rain were debated by Plougonven et al. (2018) and O’Neill et al. (2018) . O’Neill et al. (2017

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Adèle Révelard
,
Claude Frankignoul
,
Nathalie Sennéchael
,
Young-Oh Kwon
, and
Bo Qiu

atmospheric response seems to be primarily driven by the decadal variability of the KE. Indeed, repeating the analysis, but regressing onto a high-pass- and low-pass-filtered KE index with a cutoff at 6 years gave very similar results when using the low-pass filtered KE index, but different and more noisy ones when using the high-pass filtered one (not shown). b. SST anomalies and heat flux feedback The KE variability influences the atmosphere through SST changes that generate air–sea heat flux anomalies

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Yi-Hui Wang
and
W. Timothy Liu

associated with the Niño-3.4 index are removed. After separating the large-scale and frontal-scale signals and removing the tropical variability, we perform regression analysis to the KE index and the individual climate variables point by point. The KE index is normalized by its standard deviation. The regression coefficient at each point represents the changes in one specific variable as the normalized KE index increases by one unit. The light green contours in the figures enclose areas where the

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Xiaohui Ma
,
Ping Chang
,
R. Saravanan
,
Dexing Wu
,
Xiaopei Lin
,
Lixin Wu
, and
Xiuquan Wan

related variables is computed when carrying out SVD analysis. Additionally, we carried out lag-regression analyses to examine relationships between SST and extreme flux events. These analyses are based on seasonal mean anomalies and the results will be discussed in section 4 . 3. Event-day and non-event-day fluxes and the associated storms a. Characteristics of extreme flux events Figure 2a shows the NDJFM daily climatology of THF and the associated standard deviation for the KER (top graph) and GSR

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Bunmei Taguchi
,
Niklas Schneider
,
Masami Nonaka
, and
Hideharu Sasaki

latter. The westward intensification and concentration of the signals with initially broad meridional scale is consistent with jet-trapped Rossby waves proposed by Sasaki et al. (2013) . Fig . 6. (a) Lagged correlation (color shading) and regression (contours, every 0.1 K) coefficients of annual mean based on the Ishii analysis associated with the standardized reference time series of averaged over the KE region (33°–38°N, 145°–170°E; cyan boxes in the panels for lag 0 yr). Positive (negative

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Hyodae Seo
,
Young-Oh Kwon
,
Terrence M. Joyce
, and
Caroline C. Ummenhofer

Joyce 2013 ). In (b) and (c), the mean position of the GS is shown as thick black lines; and in (b) the 6°, 8°, and 10°C isotherms by thin black contours. Tropical influence is removed based on the linear regression on the leading principal components of the tropical Indo-Pacific SST and tropical Atlantic SST. Focusing on interannual to longer time scales, Kwon and Joyce (2013) used lead–lag regression analysis to find a significant relationship between the GSI and the North Atlantic SST when the

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R. Justin Small
,
Frank O. Bryan
,
Stuart P. Bishop
, and
Robert A. Tomas

://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00062.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00062.1 Clement , A. , K. Bellomo , L. N. Murphy , M. A. Cane , T. Mauritsen , G. Rädel , and B. Stevens , 2015 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation without a role for ocean circulation . Science , 350 , 320 – 324 , https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aab3980 . 10.1126/science.aab3980 Cohen , J. , and P. Cohen , 1983 : Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences . Lawrence Erlbam

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