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Weifeng G. Zhang, John L. Wilkin, and Oscar M. E. Schofield

coastal ocean biogeochemical processes. Focusing on time scales associated with the spreading of river source waters across the inner shelf, this paper applies CART to the circulation of the Hudson River discharge in the New York Bight (NYB). The NYB is adjacent to a wide, shallow continental shelf; on this coast, wind, large-scale shelf-wide circulation, and variable bathymetry all play roles in driving local circulation and dispersing the Hudson River plume ( Castelao et al. 2008 ; Chant et al

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Daniel G. Kingston, Glenn R. McGregor, David M. Hannah, and Damian M. Lawler

1. Introduction Understanding the climatic forcing of river flow represents a major research challenge of practical relevance, due to high socioeconomic and ecological dependence on water resources. This relevance is further enhanced in light of the pressing need to predict future water stress and risk within the context of climate change ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). Hydrologists have long been aware of the influence of climate on river flow, although traditional analyses rarely extended beyond

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Cédric H. David, David R. Maidment, Guo-Yue Niu, Zong-Liang Yang, Florence Habets, and Victor Eijkhout

1. Introduction Land surface models (LSMs) have been developed by the atmospheric science community to provide atmospheric models with bottom boundary conditions (water and energy balance) and to serve as the land base for hydrologic modeling. Over the past two decades, overland and subsurface runoff calculations done by LSMs have extensively been used to provide water inflow to river routing models that calculate river discharge ( De Roo et al. 2003 ; Habets et al. 1999a – c , 2008

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Roy Barkan, James C. McWilliams, Alexander F. Shchepetkin, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Lionel Renault, Annalisa Bracco, and Jun Choi

, Luo et al. (2016 , hereinafter L16 ) suggested that the primary drivers of submesoscales in the De Soto Canyon region are the Loop Current eddies and the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River system (hereinafter rivers). They further argued that in winter when the mixed layer is deepest, submesoscales are generated primarily by frontogenesis and mixed layer instabilities, whereas during summer they are weaker than in winter and are associated with frontogenesis fueled by the horizontal density gradients

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Pavla Pekarova, Dana Halmova, Pavol Miklanek, Milan Onderka, Jan Pekar, and Peter Skoda

basin). The temperature of the water in streams is more and more being influenced by human activities within basins—mainly due to the construction of water reservoirs, the erection of thermal and nuclear power plants, and the diversion of sewage into surface waters ( Stancikova and Capekova 1993 ). The first daily measurements of water temperatures of Slovakian streams and rivers were made in 1925. Measurements of water temperature in the Danube River at the Bratislava gauging station for a period

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Stefano Materia, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Zhichang Guo, Andrea Alessandri, and Antonio Navarra

observed only over very limited areas (e.g., Robock et al. 2000 ). This deficiency exists primarily because in situ measurement of soil moisture (as well as snow mass and soil heat content) is difficult to accomplish, and remote sensing techniques are not always effective ( Dirmeyer et al. 2006 ). However, many observational datasets are available for river discharge, which represent the final stage of the land surface water cycle before draining into the oceans. Consequently, river routing schemes

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Edwin Welles and Soroosh Sorooshian

1. Introduction Recently, Welles et al. (2007) evaluated National Weather Service (NWS) river stage forecasts. They found the forecast skill may not have improved as much as expected because, as they suggested, forecast system updates were not driven by objective measures of forecast skill. Many people have studied elements of the forecast process—calibration, state updating, and precipitation forecasts—but the forecast process itself with the various elements linked together has not been

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Zhaoyun Chen, Yuwu Jiang, Jia Wang, and Wenping Gong

, 2013 ). Hu and Wang (2016) reviewed the upwelling studies conducted off China’s coasts, and pointed out that upwelling is active in the northern South China Sea, in the Taiwan Strait, off the northeastern Taiwan and Zhejiang coasts, off the Yangtze River Estuary, and sometimes in the northern Bohai Strait. Coastal upwelling can be triggered by winds, tides, background currents, and eddies and is influenced by stratification. Upwelling-favorable wind with a duration of several days commonly causes

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Lei Wang, Tandong Yao, Chenhao Chai, Lan Cuo, Fengge Su, Fan Zhang, Zhijun Yao, Yinsheng Zhang, Xiuping Li, Jia Qi, Zhidan Hu, Jingshi Liu, and Yuanwei Wang

R iver runoff at locations where rivers leave the mountains and enter the plains (mountain outlets) is an important hydrological parameter, representing the integrated output of the hydrological cycle at the mountainous headwaters of river basins. Monitoring changes in river runoff at mountain outlets is particularly important at the Third Pole (TP) because rivers in this region support millions of people in Asia ( CIESIN 2018 ) and are very sensitive to climate change. The TP, also known as

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Julian A. Simeonov, K. Todd Holland, and Steven P. Anderson

1. Introduction Recent interest in river depth estimation from remote sensing measurements of surface velocity or water surface elevation has resulted in a number of different hydrodynamic inversion methods (Zaron 2017) . The inversions typically require knowledge of the discharge and the bottom friction, since the flow is inherently dependent on these parameters. While it is often assumed that the discharge and the friction are known a priori, these parameters cannot be easily sampled in situ

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