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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Russ. S. Schumacher, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

forecasts ( Davis et al. 2003 ; Jankov et al. 2005 ; Liu et al. 2006 ; Clark et al. 2007 ; Jeworrek et al. 2019 ). Sensitivity of U.S. MCSs to CP choice within regional climate models has been noted in previous work, such as Liang et al. (2012) with regard to the 1993 flooding event in the Mississippi River basin. Few studies, however, have investigated model performance and parameterization dependence in environments conducive to large precipitating MCSs in South America. Blázquez and Nuñez

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

et al. 2018 ), affecting the Carcarañá River basin, a subbasin of the La Plata River basin. As such, the mountainous headwater region of this basin ( Fig. 1 ) is ideally suited to perform hydrometeorological studies of convection and flash flooding. To measure these intense convective storms and associated impacts, the Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO, https

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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam C. Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

near Sao Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and observed convective systems 800 km to the northeast near the Parana River. Table 1. RELAMPAGO in a nutshell. Shaded are aspects related to RELAMPAGO's design (green), data collection (blue), and broader impacts (purple). Fig . 1. (a) TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) December 1998–September 2013 observed echo-top heights in the 99.9999th percentile (following Zipser et al. 2006 ). (b) A zoomed-in view of the region in the red box in (a) showing RELAMPAGO

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

dryline is required. Some studies ( Owen 1966 ; Hoch and Markowski 2005 ; Schultz et al. 2007 ) use surface observations to manually detect drylines. Based on this approach they found that drylines are observed over the U.S. Great Plains on 32%–45% of the spring season days (April, May, and June). Duell and Van Den Broeke (2016) developed an objective algorithm to detect drylines in the Mississippi River valley (United States), where drylines are less frequent, using data from the North American

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

of potential severe convective environments across South Africa . Climate Dyn. , 49 , 2161 – 2178 , . 10.1007/s00382-016-3434-7 Camilloni , I. A. , and V. R. Barros , 2003 : Extreme discharge events in the Parana River and their climate forcing . J. Hydrol. , 278 , 94 – 106 , . 10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00133-1 Cavalcanti , I. F. A. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Precipitation extremes over La Plata

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