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Hui Fan
and
Daming He

1. Introduction Ongoing global climatic change is expected to enhance the global hydrologic cycle, which will affect streamflow and water availability and thereby may disturb the discharge regime of rivers ( Barnett et al. 2005 ; Huntington 2006 ; IPCC 2007 ; Oki and Kanae 2006 ). To provide further evidence for warming-induced hydrological cycle intensification, there has been increasing interest in the linkage of climatic variability/change to hydrological processes and water resources

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Xiangbo Feng
,
Wei Zhang
,
Zhenglei Zhu
,
Amulya Chevuturi
, and
Wenlong Chen

1. Introduction Understanding changes and variability in water levels (WLs) of the river delta on various time scales is vital, e.g., for managing water resources and minimizing flood impacts. There are multiple natural factors influencing the river delta WL, including river discharge and sea level, alongside anthropogenic activities such as local water extraction and riverbed dredging. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is a coastal region of southern China, adjacent to the South China Sea (SCS). In

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Kevin Werner
and
Kristen Yeager

1. Introduction This paper describes the 2011 peak streamflows in the Colorado basin and the Great Basin in an attempt to illuminate the forecasting efforts of the NOAA Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). A recent National Research Council (2012) report highlighted the difficulties in transferring research results into operational river forecasting as a major impediment to improving forecasts. The primary goal of this paper is to highlight three areas where research is most needed

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Irena Ott
,
Doris Duethmann
,
Joachim Liebert
,
Peter Berg
,
Hendrik Feldmann
,
Juergen Ihringer
,
Harald Kunstmann
,
Bruno Merz
,
Gerd Schaedler
, and
Sven Wagner

especially flood discharges is important for the adaptation of existing and planning for future flood management. Whereas larger river systems in Europe and Germany have been widely studied (e.g., Kleinn et al. 2005 ; Dankers and Feyen 2008 ; Hurkmans et al. 2010 ), there is still a lack of information on climate change impacts on smaller rivers. Smaller catchments require higher spatial resolution of the driving atmospheric models, and with decreasing spatial extent the uncertainty of any climate

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Daniel G. Kingston
,
Glenn R. McGregor
,
David M. Hannah
, and
Damian M. Lawler

1. Introduction Understanding the climatic forcing of river flow represents a major research challenge of practical relevance, due to high socioeconomic and ecological dependence on water resources. This relevance is further enhanced in light of the pressing need to predict future water stress and risk within the context of climate change ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). Hydrologists have long been aware of the influence of climate on river flow, although traditional analyses rarely extended beyond

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Cédric H. David
,
David R. Maidment
,
Guo-Yue Niu
,
Zong-Liang Yang
,
Florence Habets
, and
Victor Eijkhout

1. Introduction Land surface models (LSMs) have been developed by the atmospheric science community to provide atmospheric models with bottom boundary conditions (water and energy balance) and to serve as the land base for hydrologic modeling. Over the past two decades, overland and subsurface runoff calculations done by LSMs have extensively been used to provide water inflow to river routing models that calculate river discharge ( De Roo et al. 2003 ; Habets et al. 1999a – c , 2008

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Pavla Pekarova
,
Dana Halmova
,
Pavol Miklanek
,
Milan Onderka
,
Jan Pekar
, and
Peter Skoda

basin). The temperature of the water in streams is more and more being influenced by human activities within basins—mainly due to the construction of water reservoirs, the erection of thermal and nuclear power plants, and the diversion of sewage into surface waters ( Stancikova and Capekova 1993 ). The first daily measurements of water temperatures of Slovakian streams and rivers were made in 1925. Measurements of water temperature in the Danube River at the Bratislava gauging station for a period

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Stefano Materia
,
Paul A. Dirmeyer
,
Zhichang Guo
,
Andrea Alessandri
, and
Antonio Navarra

observed only over very limited areas (e.g., Robock et al. 2000 ). This deficiency exists primarily because in situ measurement of soil moisture (as well as snow mass and soil heat content) is difficult to accomplish, and remote sensing techniques are not always effective ( Dirmeyer et al. 2006 ). However, many observational datasets are available for river discharge, which represent the final stage of the land surface water cycle before draining into the oceans. Consequently, river routing schemes

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Edwin Welles
and
Soroosh Sorooshian

1. Introduction Recently, Welles et al. (2007) evaluated National Weather Service (NWS) river stage forecasts. They found the forecast skill may not have improved as much as expected because, as they suggested, forecast system updates were not driven by objective measures of forecast skill. Many people have studied elements of the forecast process—calibration, state updating, and precipitation forecasts—but the forecast process itself with the various elements linked together has not been

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Thomas C. Pagano
,
Andrew W. Wood
,
Maria-Helena Ramos
,
Hannah L. Cloke
,
Florian Pappenberger
,
Martyn P. Clark
,
Michael Cranston
,
Dmitri Kavetski
,
Thibault Mathevet
,
Soroosh Sorooshian
, and
Jan S. Verkade

countries is staggering, with disasters routinely displacing from tens to hundreds of thousands of people; for example, nearly 2000 people were dead or missing after the Philippines typhoon of 2012, with evacuations exceeding 780 000 people. Droughts can be just as damaging, with the U.S. drought of 2012 costing nearly $80 billion (U.S. dollars). Some of these consequences are avoidable through advance warning, emergency response, and other preparations; thus, operational river forecasters can help

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