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Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini

comparison between simulated and observed discharges at available river cross sections, which are usually very few ( Rosso 1994 ; Rabuffetti et al. 2008 ). However, distributed models allow an internal validation, owing to their intrinsic structure ( Dooge 1986 ; Fawcett et al. 1995 ; Refsgaard and Knudsen 1996 ; Gupta et al. 1999 ), so that model internal processes and variables can be controlled in each pixel of the domain [e.g., soil moisture (SM), land surface temperature (LST), and

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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

to satellite microwave radiometric data. The objective of this paper is to study the inundation pattern in the up- and downstream area of the Poyang Lake floodplain in relation with the WSS and standing water area retrieved from passive microwave observations. Poyang Lake is the largest lake in the Yangtze River basin. As the major natural water reservoir of the Yangtze River basin, the inundation pattern of this floodplain has a significant influence on both local and downstream water resource

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

measurements. Tang et al. (2010) followed such a methodology to assess the temporal variations of terrestrial Δ S from surface P observations, satellite-based ET estimation, and gauge R measurements for two major river basins, and found that human influences have extensively altered the natural hydrological processes and seasonal Δ S in the study area. Differently, exploring the feasibility of entirely RS-based water budget for a ground-data constrained basin, Armanios and Fisher (2013) concluded

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

1. Introduction High-altitude regions, such as the source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, have seen recently a striking air and ground surface warming ( Zhao et al. 2004 ; Wang et al. 2008 ; Qin et al. 2009 ; Yang et al. 2011a ; Wu et al. 2012 ), accompanied with noticeable ecological and hydrological changes ( Wang et al. 2003 ; Yang et al. 2007 ; Yang et al. 2011b ; Zhou and Huang 2012 ). Heat flux exchanges at the land

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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Rolf H. Reichle, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

table values (not shown). Fig . 8. Time series of SMOS-retrieved (symbols) and Cal2D (lines) vegetation opacity τ , for the Walnut Gulch CalVal watershed in Arizona (black) and the Little River CalVal watershed in Georgia (gray). 3) Aggregate parameters Although in the previous subsection we presented the calibrated parameters by vegetation class, we again emphasize that the local calibration minimizes the bias at each grid cell individually and that average parameter values for a vegetation class

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Junchao Shi, Massimo Menenti, and Roderik Lindenbergh

distributed over 7080 glaciers in this mountain range. Nevertheless, there are only 28 valley glaciers longer than 10 km ( Zongtai and Huian 1992 ; Yao et al. 2007 ). These glaciers play a significant role in the circulation of the Yarlung Tsangpo and Nu rivers. The study area is limited by elevation ranging from 4498 to 7162 m, and the mean slope is 17.51°. A glacier inventory is a basic tool to explore issues related to glacial studies and morphology studies in glacial areas. Since the 1970s, Chinese

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Gift Dumedah and Jeffrey P. Walker

brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay, and deep sands ( McKenzie et al. 2000 ; McKenzie and Hook 1992 ). Information in the Digital Atlas of Australian Soils shows that the dominant soil landscape is characterized by plains with domes, lunettes, and swampy depressions, divided by discontinuous low river ridges associated with prior stream systems ( McKenzie et al. 2000 ). The area is traversed with stream valleys, containing layered soil and sedimentary materials that are

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