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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Rolf H. Reichle, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

1. Introduction Assimilating low-frequency (1–10 GHz) passive microwave observations into land surface models is expected to improve estimates of land surface conditions and, hence, weather and climate predictions. Global observations of brightness temperatures (Tb) are available from the (late) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Kerr et al. 2010 ) mission, and Aquarius ( Le Vine et al. 2007 ). Soil moisture has a

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Gift Dumedah and Jeffrey P. Walker

employed to assimilate the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) level 2 soil moisture data into the JULES model. The distribution of JULES parameter values associated with the updated ensemble members for EnKF and EDA were evaluated, together with their contribution to soil moisture estimation. These findings are important to refine DA procedures through multi-objective evolutionary strategies to adequately account for contributions from convergence of model parameters. The EnKF and the EDA have

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

downstream plains, where natural vegetation is dominated by Artemisia grasses ( Fontugne et al. 1999 ). Generally, all these steppe vegetation types are nonwoody plants with relatively small canopy height (20–40 cm) and shallow rooting depths. The adaptation methods of the natural vegetation to drought stress differ between the downstream area, where the groundwater is shallow and saline, and the rest of the region, where the groundwater table is at 35–50-m depths. In the mountainous parts in the south

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