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Denny P. Alappattu and Qing Wang

1. Introduction For decades, airborne expendable bathythermographs (AXBTs) have been used extensively for sampling ocean temperature profiles for oceanic surveys and research (e.g., Bane and Sessions 1984 ; Dinegar Boyd 1987 ; Watts et al. 1989 ; Price et al. 1994 ; Rodríguez-Santana et al. 1999 ). Recently, airborne expendable conductivity–temperature–depth (AXCTD) probes were developed to obtain both temperature and salinity profiles ( Chu and Fan 2001 ; Shay and Brewster 2010 ). These

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

profiles from hull-mounted Doppler sonar; water column optical profiles to determine the penetrating solar radiation, a key contributor to air–sea heat exchanges; sea surface (skin) temperature from infrared radiometers; near-surface ocean temperature and salinity profiles from ~0.05- to 7-m depth from a towed surface thermistor (SeaSnake) and fixed subsurface array (CT chain); and continuous profiling (150–200 casts per day) of upper-ocean temperature; salinity; microscale shear; and subsurface

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Adrian J. Matthews, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Karen J. Heywood, Piotr J. Flatau, and Sunke Schmidtko

the mission, the glider carried out 738 dive cycles, an average of 5.6 dive cycles per day or a time interval between the start of successive dives of 4.3 h. Of these, 564 dives (76%) were to 1000-m depth; the remaining dives were to 300 or 500 m. The glider vertical velocity is in the range 0.15–0.25 m s −1 . Temperature and salinity were sampled every 5 s, hence the effective vertical resolution is approximately 1 m. The glider data were corrected for thermal lags, sensor response time, and

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

near the model surface. The LES model is coupled to an ocean model based on the K -profile parameterization (KPP) boundary layer scheme from Large et al. (1994) with momentum nonlocal terms defined as in Smyth et al. (2002) . Each ocean grid point is treated as an independent column that interacts with the LES model grid point. Ocean columns do not exchange properties in the horizontal direction. As shown later in our analysis, lateral gradients of SST and salinity generated by surface flux

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

fluctuations in SST ( Vialard et al. 2008 ) can be generated through complex processes over the thermocline ridge region. Their feedback to the MJO is expected but unsubstantiated ( Duvel and Vialard 2007 ). Intraseasonal surface westerlies enhance the Wyrtki jets and their eastward transport of heat and salinity ( Han et al. 2004 ). Their roles in the SST feedback to the MJO are completely unknown. These hypotheses were proposed to be tested using field observations. Many other possible mechanisms for MJO

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Kacie E. Hoover, John R. Mecikalski, Timothy J. Lang, Xuanli Li, Tyler J. Castillo, and Themis Chronis

fields were prepared and put into a format that E2ES can process. The mandatory variables for E2ES input include time, latitude, longitude, wind speed ( u and υ components), rain rate, freezing-level height, land mask, SST, and sea surface salinity. These input data were defined over a rectangular latitude–longitude area. Hence, all input variables, except salinity, were taken from the WRF simulations. As salinity has only a small effect on CYGNSS signals and was not available from the WRF

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

wind stress drives Ekman convergence on the equator, resulting in equatorial downwelling. However, the zonal wind stress occurs in short bursts that last several days. Stress observations exceeded 0.2 N m −2 for a total of 27 h (1.5% of the time sampled) during DYNAMO and the peak stress was 1 N m −2 . Such (eastward) westerly wind bursts can drive mixing of temperature and salinity across the thermocline ( Smyth et al. 1996 ), and accelerate zonal currents in the ocean, whose convergence

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

hurricane environment . The mixed layer thickness is calculated based on the depth where the density jump is equivalent to a 3°C temperature change from the 2-m height while holding the salinity constant at the 2-m-level value. These criteria give a shallower MLD but capture the daytime diurnal warm layer and avoid the problem of missing salinity data in the upper 1 m of ocean from the sea glider. Fig . 11. Comparisons of COAMPS (blue) (first and second rows) vertically averaged temperature to 80-m

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Simon P. de Szoeke and Eric D. Maloney

before the onset of active convection. Wind and clouds associated with the convection quickly expunge the warm SST anomaly by decreased downward radiative flux, increased surface turbulent heat flux, and increased and upper ocean mixing ( Moum et al. 2014 ), even when the upper ocean entrains warmer water from the salinity stratified barrier layer during westerly wind bursts ( Pujiana et al. 2017 ). Compared to intraseasonal fluxes diagnosed using the time-mean SST field, intraseasonal SST anomalies

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Aurélie J. Moulin, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

was not computed when T z > −10 −3 °C m −1 . (Note that T z > 0 corresponds to an unstable density profile over the observation time period when salinity was not an important contributor to density.) Values of ε exceeding 10 −5.8 or smaller than 10 −12 m 2 s −3 were also removed. Collectively, removed data points account for roughly 60% of the total dataset. The method outlined above follows directly from algorithms developed for processing of moored turbulence meters ( χ pods) in the

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