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Weiyue Zhang
Zhongfeng Xu
, and
Weidong Guo

climatological-mean state of 1 January. Present-day oceanic temperature and salinity were used to initialize the ocean model. It is necessary to have the upper ocean reach a reasonable state of equilibrium to investigate interannual climate variability ( Kantha and Clayson 2000 ). In our simulations, the annual-mean SST takes approximately 10 to 20 years to reach equilibrium, which is generally consistent with previous studies ( Abe et al. 2003 ; Wohlfahrt et al. 2004 ; Kitoh 2004 ). Deep soil moisture

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