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E. Kunze, J. M. Klymak, R.-C. Lien, R. Ferrari, C. M. Lee, M. A. Sundermeyer, and L. Goodman

equation simulations support the notion that nonquasigeostrophic dynamics are responsible for the observed slopes. Section 2 describes the background environment, section 3 defines instrumentation and measurements, section 4 discusses spectral analysis methods, section 5 relates our horizontal wavenumber spectrum for salinity gradients on isopycnals, section 6 defines previous similar measurements, section 7 discusses possible explanations for the observed spectral slopes, and section 8

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Leif N. Thomas and Callum J. Shakespeare

. 2005 ). Mode waters are identified as a local maximum in a volumetric census in a temperature–salinity diagram ( Hanawa and Talley 2001 ). They are distinguished from other water masses by their defining characteristic—weak stratification and anomalously low potential vorticity. Mode water formation requires a convergent diapycnal mass flux that can fill isopycnal layers and reduce the stratification. The mechanism that selects the density class where a diapycnal mass flux converges and mode water

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Callum J. Shakespeare and Leif N. Thomas

1. Introduction Mode waters are identified as a local maximum in a volumetric census in a temperature–salinity ( T – S ) diagram tied to a water mass with weak stratification and low potential vorticity ( Hanawa and Talley 2001 ). The mechanism that selects the temperature, salinity, and density class where a particular mode water accumulates is not well understood. The formation of mode water has long been attributed to wintertime air–sea buoyancy loss and convection (e.g., Worthington 1959

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Andrey Y. Shcherbina, Miles A. Sundermeyer, Eric Kunze, Eric D’Asaro, Gualtiero Badin, Daniel Birch, Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Jörn Callies, Brandy T. Kuebel Cervantes, Mariona Claret, Brian Concannon, Jeffrey Early, Raffaele Ferrari, Louis Goodman, Ramsey R. Harcourt, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, M.-Pascale Lelong, Murray D. Levine, Ren-Chieh Lien, Amala Mahadevan, James C. McWilliams, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Sonaljit Mukherjee, Jonathan D. Nash, Tamay Özgökmen, Stephen D. Pierce, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Roger M. Samelson, Thomas B. Sanford, R. Kipp Shearman, Eric D. Skyllingstad, K. Shafer Smith, Amit Tandon, John R. Taylor, Eugene A. Terray, Leif N. Thomas, and James R. Ledwell

LatMix combines shipboard, autonomous, and airborne field observations with modeling to improve understanding of ocean stirring across multiple scales. Dispersion of natural and anthropogenic tracers in the ocean is traditionally conceptualized as a two-stage process: The first step, stirring, is an adiabatic rearrangement of water parcels that does not change their potential temperature, salinity, or other tracer concentrations; it tends to stretch tracer patches into convoluted streaks and

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Gualtiero Badin, Amit Tandon, and Amala Mahadevan

1. Introduction In the oceanic mixed layer (ML), atmospheric forcing, ocean dynamics, and their interplay act to leave the surface waters well mixed. While the ML waters are mixed in the vertical, lateral gradients in temperature and salinity are a common feature. Processes responsible for the creation of lateral gradients in temperature and salinity in the open ocean include nonhomogeneous heat and freshwater fluxes, wind mixing associated with the passage of a storm, and ocean convection

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Ren-Chieh Lien and Thomas B. Sanford

. 2. LatMix experiment and EM-APEX float measurements a. LatMix experiment An array of 20 EM-APEX floats was deployed in the upper ocean of the Sargasso Sea southeast of Cape Hatteras in summer 2011 as part of the Scalable Lateral Mixing and Coherent Turbulence (short title: LatMix) Departmental Research Initiative funded by the Office of Naval Research ( Fig. 1 ) ( Shcherbina et al. 2015 ). During the experiment, EM-APEX floats measured temperature T , salinity S , pressure P , and horizontal

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Leif N. Thomas, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Craig M. Lee, Jody M. Klymak, and Andrey Shcherbina

front at an average speed of about 1.4 m s −1 . However, there were considerable spatial variations in the flow moving away from the float. Specifically, the velocity was strongly sheared in the horizontal, varying by ~±0.5 m s −1 within ±5 km of the track. Temperature and salinity measurements on the float show that the float remained in the front throughout the deployment. During this time, satellite IR images (not shown) illustrate that the front itself moves laterally about ±15 km, several

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Daniel Mukiibi, Gualtiero Badin, and Nuno Serra

-slip boundary conditions. The top of the channel satisfies free-surface boundary conditions. Model parameters used in the numerical simulations are presented in Table 1 . The channel is initialized with a ML front with a density contrast aligned in the zonal direction and 100 m deep. The ML front is positioned 96 km north of the southern boundary of the channel. The southern part of the channel contains lighter, warm, and more saline waters at the surface, while the northern part is initialized with

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Eric Kunze and Miles A. Sundermeyer

shear flow . J. Fluid Mech. , 195 , 77 – 111 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112088002332 . Rudnick , D. , and R. Ferrari , 1999 : Compensation of horizontal temperature and salinity gradients in the ocean mixed layer . Science , 283 , 526 – 529 , doi: 10.1126/science.283.5401.526 . Scotti , R. S. , and G. M. Corcos , 1972 : An experiment on the stability of small disturbances in a stratified free-shear layer . J. Fluid Mech. , 52 , 499 – 528 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112072001569 . Shcherbina

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