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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

1. Introduction Oceanic salinity plays an important role in the climate system due to its significant influence on oceanic stratification and barrier layers ( Sprintall and Tomczak 1992 ; Thompson et al. 2006 ; Balaguru et al. 2016 ) and ocean circulation ( Gordon et al. 2003 ; Feng et al. 2015 ; Hu and Sprintall 2016 , 2017a , b ), and has a close link to the global hydrological cycle ( Durack and Wijffels 2010 ; Durack et al. 2012 ). Investigation of ocean salinity variability and

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

Oceanography, include salinity and temperature profiles on a 1° longitude × 1°latitude horizontal grid and in 58 vertical levels from 2.5 to 1975 m ( Roemmich and Gilson 2009 ). Absolute geostrophic currents (AGCs) were calculated using the P-vector method ( Chu 1995 ) based on the gridded Argo profiles. The P-vector method assumes conservation of potential density and potential vorticity and is equivalent to the β -spiral method under the Boussinesq and geostrophic approximation ( Yuan et al. 2014 ). The

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Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, and Wanqiu Wang

this analysis. Acknowledgments We thank NOAA’s Climate Program Office for their support. Author J. Zhu is partially supported by the NASA Ocean Salinity Science Team Grant NNX17AK09G. REFERENCES Ge , X. , W. Wang , A. Kumar , and Y. Zhang , 2017 : Importance of the vertical resolution in simulating SST diurnal and intraseasonal variability in an oceanic general circulation model . J. Climate , 30 , 3963 – 3978 , . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16

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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

measurements. A miniature version of the Bailong buoy system from the FIO ( Cole et al. 2011 ) was used in the program (SB1), which has a surface meteorological package to measure the surface air temperature, humidity, pressure, winds, and shortwave and longwave radiation at a 10-min interval, and a subsurface (within the upper 500 m) oceanographic package to measure upper-ocean temperature, salinity, pressure, oxygen, and current speed and direction at a 30-min interval. The details of the instrumentation

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

-GCM variations” ( DeMott et al. 2015 ). Thus, similar studies as ours with diverse models should be encouraged, which would not only assess the model dependency of our conclusions, but, more important, explore the influence of other factors on estimates of MJO predictability. Acknowledgments We thank NOAA’s Climate Program Office for their support through the Modeling, Analysis, Predictions, and Projections (MAPP). Author Zhu is partially supported by the NASA Ocean Salinity Science Team Grant NNX17AK09G. We

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