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Claudia Pasquero and Eli Tziperman

1. Introduction Ocean general circulation model (GCM) equations are written for the gridbox-averaged quantities, and the subgrid-scale variability of temperature, salinity, and velocities is often parameterized in the form of eddy viscosity and diffusivity. Observations in regions of deep oceanic convection, such as the Labrador Sea, show that temperature T and salinity S fields have small- and mesoscale variability ( Lilly et al. 2003 ), which is believed to play an important role in the

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

temperature and salinity conditions over the full water column and to adjust the time-varying meteorological forcing fields over the full estimation period on a daily basis. This work is an extension of a previous paper ( Stammer et al. 2002b , hereinafter referred to as SEA02 ) that described a similar synthesis but one that was obtained on a coarser 2° grid and over a shorter period while using significantly less data and less accurate model physics. As before, our approach is to use a general

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Manfred Wenzel and Jens Schröter

has a free surface and conserves mass rather than volume. The usefulness of the model is further improved by adding the steric effects explicitly to the original coding. The temporal evolution of the sea surface height ζ is determined as where ζ represents the sea level, H is the depth, P is precipitation, E is evaporation, R is river runoff, T is the temperature, S is salinity, p is the pressure, α = 1/ ρ is the specific volume, and v is the horizontal velocity. This offers

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

high sea level indicates a deep pycnocline, and vice versa. SSH changes can equivalently be interpreted in terms of the integral response to anomalies of the vertical density distribution (through temperature and salinity variations), in which case the attribute steric is commonly applied to describe these changes. We use the term “steric” here strictly as pertaining to the temperature, salinity, and pressure-dependent specific volume of the ocean. The two perspectives on sea level changes

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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

topography. The model was integrated for 20 yr, using asynchronous time stepping (6 min for velocities and 30 min for tracers). Velocities were initialized to zero, and initial temperatures and salinities were taken from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Programme–Special Analysis Centre (WHP–SAC) atlas ( Gouretski and Janke 1998 ) supplemented by Levitus (1982) data in the Arctic Ocean. Restoring boundary conditions loosely constrain the sea surface temperature and salinity

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

Gibraltar plays a critical role in regulating the circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its outflow affects global ocean circulation [see, e.g., Candela (2001) for a recent review]. The Mediterranean Sea has an excess of evaporation over precipitation. Mass and salt budgets of the basin consequently require a net inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar, and a baroclinic exchange of outflowing salty Mediterranean seawater and an inflowing lower salinity North Atlantic Ocean water. Time-mean outflow

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Reiner Schlitzer

measurements have been made over longer time periods, most of our knowledge about deep ocean circulation on large scales comes from inferences made on the basis of distributions of hydrographic parameters, such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and other tracers ( Mantyla and Reid 1995 ; Reid 1997 ; Wunsch and Grant 1982 ; Wunsch et al. 1983 ). Using measurements of the radioactive carbon isotope 14 C, Broecker and Peng (1982) were able to determine the ages of deep water masses (time

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

the 8751 Argo profiles used here span the period from July 2003 to June 2005. Locations of Argo profiles are shown in Fig. 2 (gray dots). Argo delayed-mode quality control procedures ( Wong et al. 2003 ) were used to detect and adjust the slow salinity drift that occurred in some floats. Results of the present analysis are not sensitive to those adjustments. Dynamic height (DH) maps were drawn from WOCE and Argo data using an objective mapping procedure ( Bretherton et al. 1975 ). For both sets

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

is, however, very rare. Exceptions are those of Webb and de Cuevas (2003) , who discuss P a -driven signals only in passing, and Tierney et al. (2000) , who analyze some of the unpublished numerical experiments of Bryan et al. (1999). Based on comparisons of a fully stratified experiment and one with constant temperature and salinity, the latter studies suggest a generally weak influence of stratification except in certain regions (e.g., in the Southern Ocean). Constant temperature and

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

and salinity as well as air–sea buoyancy and momentum flux fields (other control variables are available, but do not play a role here). The procedure for adding topography to the control vector is based on the “partial cell” treatment in the MITgcm ( Adcroft et al. 1997 ). This technique enables continuous variation of the fractional volume per grid cell between zero and one with respect to the vertical component and—apart from its original motivation to represent topography more accurately

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