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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

1. Introduction North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) occupies the subtropical gyre region of the North Pacific and has well-defined low salinity at a depth range of 300–800 m ( Sverdrup et al. 1942 ) and a distinct salinity minimum centered in the narrow density range of σ θ = 26.7–26.9 ( Reid 1965 ). Ventilation areas for the NPIW have been identified in subpolar regions, mainly in the Sea of Okhotsk ( Yasuda 1997 ) and the Gulf of Alaska ( Van Scoy et al. 1991 ; You et al. 2000

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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Chisato Umeda

resolution of 32 sigma levels ( Fig. 1 ). The choice of the horizontal resolution was based on previous studies suggesting the importance of having a high horizontal resolution of less than 10 km in reproducing the flow field of the East China Sea ( Guo et al. 2003 ; Yang et al. 2011 ) and mesoscale features (e.g., Na et al. 2014 ). The minimum depth within the model domain was 20 m. The model was run from 1871 to 2010 starting from a state of rest and using the climatological temperature and salinity

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

( Liu 1999 ). In contrast to these Rossby waves that are associated with density perturbations (e.g., Liu and Alexander 2007 ), temperature and salinity anomalies that are density-compensated (i.e., spiciness anomalies; e.g., Veronis 1972 ; Schneider 2000 ) are passive tracers and are advected with the flow [see also the introduction in Kilpatrick et al. (2011) ]. The frontal regions of the Kuroshio and Oyashio Extensions separate high-spiciness warm and salty waters of subtropical gyre from the

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Bunmei Taguchi, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki

Schneider (2014 , hereinafter TS14) analyzed mechanisms for generation and propagation of decadal-scale OHC anomalies in a long-term climate model simulation. In their model, large OHC variability in the North Pacific is confined along the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ) where mean northward decrease of temperature and salinity density compensates and forms large gradients of mean spiciness (e.g., Veronis 1972 ; Schneider 2000 ). The simulated frontal zone exhibits internally generated decadal

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Shusaku Sugimoto

parts of the KOC. We quantitatively assess the contributions of SST to the THF in the eastern part of the KOC, and we investigate a cause of SST variation in the eastern part of the KOC using temperature–salinity profiles and a satellite-derived altimetry dataset. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an outline of the datasets used in this study. Section 3 investigates a relationship between the THF in the eastern and western parts of the KOC. Section 4 assesses the

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, and Shang-Ping Xie

Ocean Atlas 1998, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 28, 166 pp. Antonov , J. I. , S. Levitus , T. P. Boyer , M. E. Conkright , T. O'Brien , C. Stephens , and B. Trotsenko , 1998c : Temperature of the Indian Ocean. Vol. 3, World Ocean Atlas 1998, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 29, 166 pp. Boyer , T. P. , S. Levitus , J. I. Antonov , M. E. Conkright , T. O'Brien , and C. Stephens , 1998a : Salinity of the Atlantic Ocean. Vol. 4, World Ocean Atlas 1998, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 30, 166 pp

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Hyodae Seo

, the 10-yr ROMS spinup simulation is driven by the climatological monthly temperature and salinity (1980–2007) from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA; Carton and Giese 2008 ) and the momentum, heat, and freshwater fluxes from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Dataset ( da Silva et al. 1994 ). Time series of the domain-averaged, depth-integrated kinetic energy (not shown) indicates that a quasi-steady state is reached by the third year (e.g., Vic et al. 2014 ). Figure 2 shows the monthly

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, Sarah Larson, and Robert A. Tomas

.09.040 . 10.1016/j.physd.2006.09.040 Yu , X. , A. C. Naveira Garabato , A. P. Martin , C. E. Buckingham , L. Brannigan , and Z. Su , 2019 : An annual cycle of submesoscale vertical flow and restratification in the upper ocean . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 49 , 1439 – 1461 , . 10.1175/JPO-D-18-0253.1 Zhang , R. , 2017 : On the persistence and coherence of subpolar sea surface temperature and salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic

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