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Lisan Yu

1. Introduction Two salinity remote sensing satellite missions are expected to be launched in 2009–10. One mission is the Aquarius/Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-D (SAC-D) science mission, developed jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE), the Argentine space agency ( Lagerloef et al. 1995 , 2008 ; Koblinsky et al. 2003 ; Le Vine et al. 2007 ). The other mission is the Soil Moisture and Ocean

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Julian Simeonov and Melvin E. Stern

consider vertical gradients of temperature T z < 0 and salinity S z < 0, such that no small-scale double-diffusive convection is initially present (cf. Simeonov and Stern 2007 ); such conditions exist in the Arctic Ocean above the Atlantic water. In the presence of horizontal gradients, this basic state is unstable to lateral intrusions driven by the molecular diffusivities ( Holyer 1983 ). The amplifying intrusion shear will rotate the undisturbed isotherms (isohalines), thereby generating an

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Prasad G. Thoppil and Patrick J. Hogan

formation of the saltier and denser Persian Gulf water (PGW) mass. The densest water forms during winter in the northern end of the gulf, where it has a salinity of about 41 psu and temperature maxima higher than 21°C ( Swift and Bower 2003 ). The resulting water deficit in the gulf is compensated for by an inflow of relatively warmer and less saline water of Arabian Sea origin (36.5–37 psu) through the Strait of Hormuz. The low-salinity inflow occurs along the northern side of the strait and spreads

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Florian Sévellec, Thierry Huck, Mahdi Ben Jelloul, and Jérôme Vialard

1. Introduction A strong modification of surface air temperature in the North Atlantic during the past century has been established ( Mann et al. 1999 )—in the context of global warming. This temperature modification is concomitant with a modification of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the same region noted since the mid-1970s and is related to an increase of precipitation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre ( Josey and Marsh 2005 ). A similar salinity modification has also been measured in the

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David K. Ralston, W. Rockwell Geyer, and James A. Lerczak

1. Introduction Understanding the structure and variability of the salinity distribution in an estuary is critical to many ecological and engineering management decisions. The salinity distribution is governed by a balance between downstream advection of salt by river flow and upstream transport of salt by dispersive processes. These up-estuary fluxes can be divided into a subtidal component due to residual velocity and salinity and an oscillatory tidal component associated with correlations in

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Julius Busecke, Ryan P. Abernathey, and Arnold L. Gordon

the terrestrial water cycle. Studying the freshwater flux over the ocean is very challenging because of the complicated and spatially sparse measurements and the reliance on bulk formulas for various flux products, resulting in large uncertainties between datasets ( Schanze et al. 2010 ). Because of these difficulties, the idea of using sea surface salinity (SSS) as a proxy of the integrated freshwater forcing has emerged ( Schmitt 2008 ; Gordon and Giulivi 2008 ). By removing (adding) freshwater

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Jae-Hong Moon, Naoki Hirose, Jong-Hwan Yoon, and Ig-Chan Pang

1. Introduction The water masses in the East China Sea (ECS) are characterized by various factors such as the Kuroshio water, river discharge, tidal mixing and atmospheric forcing ( Chang and Isobe 2003 ). Among these factors, the effect of freshwater dominates the distributions of surface salinity in summer when the rivers runoff are high, especially associated with the Changjiang River contributing about 90% of the whole river discharge into the interior of the ECS ( Beardsley et al. 1985

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A. K. Wåhlin and H. L. Johnson

the boundary current. Allowing the boundary current to exchange buoyancy directly with the atmosphere is crucial in marginal seas such as the Nordic seas, where the boundary current enters at the surface. The surface heat flux depends strongly on the sea surface temperature, whereas the salt flux arising from the freshwater input is much more weakly dependent on the surface salinity. As a consequence, salinity generally adjusts on a longer length scale than temperature. We examine the effect this

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Marcelo Dottori and Allan J. Clarke

also important? Although much of the California coast’s interannual sea level and SST seem to be remotely driven, the remote signal does not explain the low-frequency surface salinity since the latter is not well correlated with El Niño indices ( Schneider et al. 2005 ). Chelton et al. (1982) suggested that both anomalous alongshore and vertical advection of salt may contribute to the low-frequency variability of salinity. Applying the alongshore advection hypothesis, Schneider et al. (2005

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Florian Sévellec, Thierry Huck, Mahdi Ben Jelloul, Nicolas Grima, Jérôme Vialard, and Anthony Weaver

1. Introduction The ocean circulation is a slow component of the climate system and thus a major contributor to the system’s low-frequency variability. Moreover, global warming is likely to influence the oceans’ salinity distribution, and hence their dynamics, through the expected modification of the water cycle. Josey and Marsh (2005) have shown that an increase of the precipitation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre has modified the sea surface salinity since the mid-1970s. Modifications

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