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Duncan C. Blanchard and A. Theodore Spencer

182 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~.~xiE21Condensation Nuclei and the Crys~_!llzation of Saline Drops~DUNCAN C. BLANCHARD AND A. THEODORE SPENCER Woods H ol~ Oce~nogr a p ki~ Institution, Woods H olo, M a~s. (Manuscript received 10 October 1963)ABSTRACT Saline drops oi from 5 to 100 microns diameter were sprayed onto spider webs, onto glass fibers, and ontoplane surfaces. The drops were composed

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Fikrettin Çelik and John D. Marwitz

size caused by different salinity. Small droplets have higher equilibrium supersaturation ( s *) than the s * for larger droplets. Large droplets use the ambient supersaturation ( s ) to grow, thereby decreasing the s below the s * for small droplets, thereby causing them to evaporate. Even if s > s * for some of the small droplets, some small droplets will not grow as fast as large ones. Thus, a narrow droplet size spectrum will broaden to large and small sizes. However, due to evaporation

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Edgar L. Andreas

microphysical model to accuratelypredict the evaporating temperature, Tev, of pure and saline droplets to investigate how close Twet is to thistemperature. In general, T,~ is within 0.2--0.3-C of Toy for droplets with salinifies from 0 to 40 psu when thedroplet radius is 10/~m or greater. When the droplet radius is less than 10/~m. however, T~ can underestimateT~v badly, especially for higher air temperatures. To provide accurate estimates of Toy quickly, the paper describesan algorithm that predicts Tev to

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Alexei V. Korolev

is shown that a cloud dropletspecuum may be narrowed at one size interval and broadened at another simultaneously. Numerical simulationsindicate that the salinity and surface curvature terms may produce absolute and relative broadening of dropletspectra in stratiform clouds in several tens of minutes, with variations of the supersaturation arising from typicalturbulent vertical velocity fluctuations. The changes in shape of the droplet size spectmrn are not reversible in'these processes.1

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Alexandre A. Costa, William R. Cotton, Robert L. Walko, and Roger A. Pielke Sr.

data depicted in Figs. 2a, 2d , and 2e, and the observed meridional wind (not shown) were used in this procedure. The ocean model is a 2D version of the Princeton Ocean Model, described by Blumberg and Mellor (1987) . The model contains prognostic equations for the zonal and meridional currents, potential temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent length scale. A splitting procedure is adopted to resolve the fast-varying external mode and the slow-varying internal mode. The

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Rong Zhang, Thomas L. Delworth, Rowan Sutton, Daniel L. R. Hodson, Keith W. Dixon, Isaac M. Held, Yochanan Kushnir, John Marshall, Yi Ming, Rym Msadek, Jon Robson, Anthony J. Rosati, MingFang Ting, and Gabriel A. Vecchi

. The purpose of these comparisons is to assess more completely how well the HadGEM2-ES simulations actually replicate the observed evolution of the North Atlantic over the twentieth century. In section 3 we examine North Atlantic upper-ocean heat content. In section 4 we examine the spatial pattern of multidecadal SST changes. In section 5 we examine sea surface salinity (SSS) in the North Atlantic. In section 6 we examine subsurface temperature anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic (TNA

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Eric B. Kraus and Lynn D. Leslie

stratus tends to form over relatively cold water; its presence then keeps the water cold. Wehave investigated the resultant downstream deve!opment in the framework of an interactive, two-dimensional, steady-state model of the oceanic and atmospheric mixed layers. Upstream boundary and interiorconditions in both media, and irradiance and advection velocities are specified; mixed-layer temperatures,salinity, heat and moisture content are evolving dependent variables. The integration is continued

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Alfred H. Woodcock

, until the concentration of salt inthem is equal to that given by curve 1 in fig. 7 for arate of rain of 25 mm/hr [;.e., about 0.25 mg C1/1(salinity 0.45 mg/l)]. At this concentration, the droplets become as large as raindrops and are similarThe extrapolation of lines 1 and 2 on fig. 5 in the direction ofgreater particle weight is a reasonable one, based upon the sampling experience discussed in section 9, below.6 No samples were taken within the clouds, because of the greatdifficulty of sampling

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Xiaoqing Wu and Mitchell W. Moncrieff

. 1996 ; Sui et al. 1997 ) have shown that 1D ocean models can well simulate the ocean response to the observed surface forcing and advection during TOGA COARE. The 1D ocean model used in this paper is from Large et al. (1994) . The governing equations can be expressed as where u, υ, T, and s are horizontal (zonal and meridional) components, temperature, and salinity, respectively. The term w ′ a ′ is the vertical turbulent fluxes of either momentum, temperature, or salinity depending on the

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Richard H. Johnson and Paul E. Ciesielski

will take into account recent improvements to the sounding wind profiles by merging data from the 915-MHz wind profilers in the IFA ( Ciesielski et al. 1997 ). The other comparisons that will be considered include the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP; Xie and Arkin 1997 ), the mixed microwave–visible–infrared satellite rain estimation algorithm of Curry et al. (1999) , and the ocean salinity budget analysis of Feng et al. (1998) . In addition, the budget

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