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Paul A. Conrads and Lisa S. Darby

Changes in the salinity concentration of coastal waters during extreme meteorological conditions of droughts and floods can result in substantial short- and long-term environmental responses. Long-term weather extremes, such as droughts, can have devastating environmental and eco-nomic effects on many societal sectors including water management, energy production, and agricultural crops ( Wilhite 2000 ). In the United States the 2012 drought affected 22 states and cost an estimated $30

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J. Boutin, Y. Chao, W. E. Asher, T. Delcroix, R. Drucker, K. Drushka, N. Kolodziejczyk, T. Lee, N. Reul, G. Reverdin, J. Schanze, A. Soloviev, L. Yu, J. Anderson, L. Brucker, E. Dinnat, A. Santos-Garcia, W. L. Jones, C. Maes, T. Meissner, W. Tang, N. Vinogradova, and B. Ward

A synthesis of present knowledge about the formation and evolution of vertical and horizontal variability in near-surface salinity at scales relevant to satellite salinity is presented. Photo: Raindrops on a water surface. [ID 5563454 ©Sailorman: Dreamstime.com .] L-band microwave radiometers on both the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Mecklenburg et al. 2012 ) and Aquarius/Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas-D (SAC-D) ( Lagerloef 2012 ) satellites have now demonstrated that they are

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A. V. S. Chaitanya, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, V. V. Gopalakrishna, F. Durand, C. Kranthikumar, S. Amritash, V. Suneel, F. Papa, and M. Ravichandran

Measurements of salinity by fishermen in knee-deep water reveal a seasonal “river in the sea” flowing along the eastern coast of India The Indian Ocean is the only tropical ocean that is entirely bounded by a landmass to the north. In boreal summer, this unique geographical setting allows for a large differential heating between the Asian subcontinent and the ocean to the south that drives the most dramatic monsoonal wind system in the world. The southwest monsoon roughly lasts from June to

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Emily Shroyer, Amit Tandon, M. Ravichandran, Debasis Sengupta, S. U. P. Jinadasa, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Neeraj Agrawal, K. Arulananthan, G. S. Bhat, Mark Baumgartner, Jared Buckley, Luca Centurioni, Patrick Conry, J. Thomas Farrar, Arnold L. Gordon, Verena Hormann, Ewa Jarosz, Tommy G. Jensen, Shaun Johnston, Matthias Lankhorst, Craig M. Lee, Laura S. Leo, Iossif Lozovatsky, Andrew J. Lucas, Jennifer Mackinnon, Amala Mahadevan, Jonathan Nash, Melissa M. Omand, Hieu Pham, Robert Pinkel, Luc Rainville, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Daniel L. Rudnick, Sutanu Sarkar, Uwe Send, Rashmi Sharma, Harper Simmons, Kathleen M. Stafford, Louis St. Laurent, Karan Venayagamoorthy, Ramasamy Venkatesan, William J. Teague, David W. Wang, Amy F. Waterhouse, Robert Weller, and Caitlin B. Whalen

-ocean structure and its linkage to the northern Indian Ocean (IO) has been impeded because of uncertainty in the freshwater distribution, set by high rainfall and river runoff. Since shallow, salinity-controlled mixed layers (MLs) have a strong influence on the distribution of upper-ocean heat content and sea surface temperature (SST), determining the mixing pathways of river runoff and quantifying the upper-ocean freshwater budget are a priority. The importance of freshwater inputs and formation of shallow

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P. N. Vinayachandran, Adrian J. Matthews, K. Vijay Kumar, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, V. Thushara, Jenson George, V. Vijith, Benjamin G. M. Webber, Bastien Y. Queste, Rajdeep Roy, Amit Sarkar, Dariusz B. Baranowski, G. S. Bhat, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Simon C. Peatman, C. Parida, Karen J. Heywood, Robert Hall, Brian King, Elizabeth C. Kent, Anoop A. Nayak, C. P. Neema, P. Amol, A. Lotliker, A. Kankonkar, D. G. Gracias, S. Vernekar, A. C. D’Souza, G. Valluvan, Shrikant M. Pargaonkar, K. Dinesh, Jack Giddings, and Manoj Joshi

to the warmer water in the east. The sea surface salinity (SSS; Fig. 1b ) is higher in the west than in the east ( Vinayachandran et al. 2013 ). Most remarkably, the western part of the southern BoB is marked by the intense monsoon current that flows into the BoB carrying higher-salinity Arabian Sea Water. The atmosphere above the cold pool is characterized by a minimum in seasonal total rainfall ( Fig. 1a ) and has the lowest amount of low-level clouds in the region ( Shankar et al. 2007

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Gabriele C. Hegerl, Emily Black, Richard P. Allan, William J. Ingram, Debbie Polson, Kevin E. Trenberth, Robin S. Chadwick, Phillip A. Arkin, Beena Balan Sarojini, Andreas Becker, Aiguo Dai, Paul J. Durack, David Easterling, Hayley J. Fowler, Elizabeth J. Kendon, George J. Huffman, Chunlei Liu, Robert Marsh, Mark New, Timothy J. Osborn, Nikolaos Skliris, Peter A. Stott, Pier-Luigi Vidale, Susan E. Wijffels, Laura J. Wilcox, Kate M. Willett, and Xuebin Zhang

potentially related to climate change and are essential for diagnosing changes in the global water cycle. These include humidity, precipitation, P – E , and salinity. We also give recommendations that will lead to more robust predictions and identification of the human influence on recent observed changes. It is beyond the scope of this paper to provide a full review of water cycle changes or to discuss regional changes (see Collins et al. 2013 ; Sánchez-Lugo et al. 2014 ), changes in the biosphere

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Steven A. Rutledge, V. Chandrasekar, Brody Fuchs, Jim George, Francesc Junyent, Brenda Dolan, Patrick C. Kennedy, and Kyla Drushka

its first deployment during the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study, second field phase (SPURS-2) project, carried out in late fall 2017 on board the R/V Roger Revelle . The SPURS-2 targeted convective systems and rainfall in the east Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). We first describe the development of SEA-POL and installation and operation on the R/V Roger Revelle . Highlights from the cruise are then presented including polarimetric-based rain maps used to

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Lili Zeng, Gengxin Chen, Ke Huang, Ju Chen, Yunkai He, Fenghua Zhou, Yikai Yang, Zhanlin Liang, Qihua Peng, Rui Shi, Tilak Priyadarshana Gamage, Rongyu Chen, Jian Li, Zhenqiu Zhang, Zewen Wu, Linghui Yu, and Dongxiao Wang

-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) project has provided valuable vertical temperature and salinity measurements. In 2006, the Indian Ocean Panel of the Climate Variability and Predictability/Global Ocean Observing System (CLIVAR/GOOS) designed and implemented the Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS) program ( Meyers and Boscolo 2006 ; Beal et al. 2020 ). The Research Moored Array for African–Asian–Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) is a key element of IndOOS ( McPhaden et al. 2006 , 2009

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Ichiro Fukumori, Patrick Heimbach, Rui M. Ponte, and Carl Wunsch

global climatology has probably been the hydrographic compilation produced initially by Levitus (1982) and its successors as the World Ocean Atlas ( WOA ) in its latest form ( WOA13 ; Locarnini et al. 2013 ). They used data from the entire history of physical oceanographic measurements of temperature and salinity as a function of horizontal position and depth. Other global averages include that of Gouretski and Koltermann (2004) , from data of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). A

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Maria Rugenstein, Jonah Bloch-Johnson, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Timothy Andrews, Urs Beyerle, Long Cao, Tarun Chadha, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Lei Duan, Marie-Alice Foujols, Thomas Frölicher, Olivier Geoffroy, Jonathan Gregory, Reto Knutti, Chao Li, Alice Marzocchi, Thorsten Mauritsen, Matthew Menary, Elisabeth Moyer, Larissa Nazarenko, David Paynter, David Saint-Martin, Gavin A. Schmidt, Akitomo Yamamoto, and Shuting Yang

and deep ocean temperature anomalies, computed as the difference of the forced and control simulations, while Fig. 4c shows the absolute temperatures of the deep ocean in the control simulations to indicate the model spread in the base state. Previous work on long-term trends in deep ocean temperature and salinity shows that these trends may reflect ongoing changes in stratification and the strength and depth of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; e.g., Stouffer and Manabe

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