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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

1. Introduction For the climate system, one of the important features of sea ice is the heat insulation effect between atmosphere and ocean. The heat insulation effect is greatly reduced in the case of thin ice. Thus, in the sea ice zone, the heat flux between atmosphere and ocean depends strongly on both ice concentration and thickness. For example, in a coastal polynya, which is a typical thin-ice area formed by divergent ice drift due to prevailing winds or oceanic currents ( Morales Maqueda

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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

temperature while having negative correlations for shortwave CRF. These Barrow observations provide a baseline for studies of Arctic CRF and serve as a reliable ground truth for validating satellite estimates and model outputs. CloudSat observations that started in 2007 ( Stephens et al. 2002 ) illustrated that the reduced cloud fraction and enhanced downward SWR contributed significantly to the 2007 record minimum sea ice extent ( Kay et al. 2008 ). This study focuses on Barrow (71.32°N, 156.61°W

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

recent LY09 heat flux product, and a new air–sea buoyancy flux estimate diagnosed from the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) by Mazloff et al. (2010) . The goal of this paper is to present the SOSE air–sea buoyancy flux estimate and to compare it with five other air–sea buoyancy flux products in the ice-free regions of the Southern Ocean for the years 2005–07, the 3 yr for which SOSE is available. Ours is the first such comparison. The SOSE air–sea buoyancy flux fields are of particular

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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

(negative) values (W m −2 ) denote upward (downward) heat release from the ocean (atmosphere) to the atmosphere (ocean). Zero contours are highlighted by thick black lines. In addition to the boundary current regions, intense sea–air thermal exchange is observed near the sea ice edges at high latitudes. This is clearly marked by the narrow bands of large SHF values around the periphery of the ice zone in the Labrador Sea, the Irminger Sea, the northern Norwegian Sea, the Bering Sea, as well as in the

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

this reanalysis in the polar regions. A quantitative knowledge of the flow, storage, and conversion of energy within the climate system has evolved with time as a result of contributions made by improvements in the observing system and by numerical atmospheric reanalyses (e.g., Fasullo and Trenberth 2008 ). In polar regions, the energy budget and its variability are frequently used as a diagnostic for understanding rapidly changing conditions including glacial mass balance and perennial sea ice

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

conducted using reanalyses that have led to an improved understanding of high-latitude teleconnection patterns (e.g., Thompson and Wallace 1998 ; Hurrell et al. 2001 ; Genthon et al. 2003 ; Monaghan and Bromwich 2008 ) and the identification of prevailing atmospheric conditions during recent, dramatic reductions in Arctic perennial sea ice cover ( Ogi and Wallace 2007 ). Reanalyses are also used as first-order validation for climate models and provide necessary boundary forcing conditions for ocean–sea

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

, 65°W and eliminated those transects that fall outside of the Drake Passage triangle with vertices at 65°W, 55 ° S; 65 ° W, 62 ° S; and 57°W, 62°S ( Fig. 1 ). We limited our analysis to the region north of 62°S to avoid regions with persistent wintertime sea ice. For this work, we further narrowed our dataset by requiring a relatively constant ship speed so that time series data collected from the ship sensors could be used consistently to infer spatial structure. Of the 166 transects that start

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Matthew R. Mazloff

are optimized but are constrained to be consistent with a 1°-resolution global state estimate ( Forget 2010 ). The northern open boundary conditions are derived from the state estimate of Forget (2010) . Runoff is prescribed at the southern boundary in attempt to account for the Antarctic ice shelves. The ocean model is coupled to a sea ice model ( Hibler 1980 ; Heimbach et al. 2010 ; Losch et al. 2010 ). The model also employs the nonlocal K -profile vertical mixing parameterization (KPP

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