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Ariaan Purich, Matthew H. England, Wenju Cai, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Axel Timmermann, John C. Fyfe, Leela Frankcombe, Gerald A. Meehl, and Julie M. Arblaster

1. Introduction The dipole pattern of recent Pacific sector sea ice trends, with decreasing ice in the Bellingshausen Sea and increasing ice in the Ross Sea, has been attributed to changing winds ( Holland and Kwok 2012 ; Fan et al. 2014 ) and specifically to the strengthening of the Amundsen Sea low ( Turner et al. 2009 , 2016 ; Clem and Fogt 2015 ; Clem and Renwick 2015 ; Meehl et al. 2016a ; Raphael et al. 2016 ). There is some suggestion that recent increasing Antarctic sea ice trends

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Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Seok-Woo Son, Steven B. Feldstein, and Yu Kosaka

1. Introduction As the solar insolation in high latitudes rapidly weakens in late fall, sea ice over the Arctic Ocean gradually thickens and extends farther southward until it reaches its maximum extent in early March. The processes that drive sea ice variability during the Arctic winter have not received as much attention as those for the summer, when ice–albedo feedback is thought to play an important role. However, Arctic warming has been most rapid during the winter ( Bekryaev et al. 2010

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M. Nuncio and Xiaojun Yuan

et al. 2008 ). The impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over southern Australia and China occurs through ENSO’s coherence with IOD ( Cai et al. 2011 ). Sea ice, on the other hand, is one of the highly varying cryospheric parameters. The growth and decay of sea ice on different time scales, ranging from seasonal to decadal, is associated with numerous processes. The Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) influences sea ice by means of anomalous mean surface heat flux and ice advection ( Liu et al

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Kyle R. Clem, James A. Renwick, and James McGregor

and West Antarctic warming are both linked to regional circulation changes associated with teleconnections stemming from the tropical Pacific and Atlantic and related reductions in sea ice concentration in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. Autumn warming of the western peninsula has been linked to a deepening of the Amundsen Sea low (ASL; Raphael et al. 2016 ; Turner et al. 2013a ; Fogt et al. 2012a ) and associated reductions in sea ice concentration along the western peninsula coast that

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

1. Introduction One of the most visible consequences of human-induced climate change is the melting of sea ice in the Arctic. Climate models project an almost complete loss of perennial Arctic sea ice cover by the end of this century or sooner if current rates of greenhouse gas emissions continue. The disappearance of sea ice will profoundly alter the surface energy balance of the Arctic Ocean as the highly reflective ice cover is replaced by darker open water (e.g., Serreze and Barry 2011

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Jin-Yi Yu, Houk Paek, Eric S. Saltzman, and Tong Lee

–Bellingshausen Seas, and near the southern tip of South America. The positive phase of the PSA is known to be related to La Niña and the negative phase of the PSA is related to El Niño (e.g., Mo 2000 ). Previous studies showed that ENSO, together with various phases of the SAM and the PSA, can influence the Southern Ocean SSTs (e.g., Ciasto and Thompson 2008 ; Lee et al. 2010 ; Yeo and Kim 2015 ), Antarctic sea ice concentrations (e.g., Liu et al. 2004 ; Stammerjohn et al. 2008 ; Yuan and Li 2008 ), and

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Xiaofang Feng, Qinghua Ding, Liguang Wu, Charles Jones, Ian Baxter, Robert Tardif, Samantha Stevenson, Julien Emile-Geay, Jonathan Mitchell, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Huijun Wang, and Eric J. Steig

1. Introduction Global surface temperatures have been warming significantly in the past 40 years due to anthropogenic forcing associated with increases in greenhouse gases (e.g., Lacis et al. 2010 ). However, the warming over this time has exhibited a prominent asymmetry ( Maksym et al. 2012 ; Ji et al. 2014 ), characterized by strong warming in and around the Arctic with pronounced sea-ice and land-ice melting ( Serreze and Barry 2011 ; Vaughan et al. 2013 ), but slight cooling over the

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Ryan L. Fogt and Alex J. Wovrosh

1. Introduction Recent studies note marked regional changes in both Antarctic sea ice extent/concentration and near-surface temperatures across the Antarctic continent. In terms of sea ice, the Ross Sea sector has been displaying increases in sea ice extent ( Lefebvre et al. 2004 ; Comiso and Nishio 2008 ), while the neighboring Amundsen–Bellingshausen (AB) Seas sector has experienced decreasing sea ice extent as well as concentration ( Yuan and Martinson 2000 ; Zwally et al. 2002

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

wave, including insights into tropical–extratropical interactions ( Fletcher and Kushner 2011 ; Garfinkel et al. 2012 ), potential connections to global warming ( Lee 2014 ), Arctic sea ice loss ( Peings and Magnusdottir 2014 ; Kim et al. 2014 ; Feldstein and Lee 2014 ), and the stratospheric polar vortex ( Limpasuvan and Hartmann 2000 ; Cohen et al. 2007 ; Garfinkel et al. 2010 ; Fletcher and Kushner 2011 ; Smith et al. 2011 ). Tropical convective forcing is known to excite a Rossby wave

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Kyle R. Clem and James A. Renwick

, and sea ice variability across West Antarctica and in the nearby Ross and Amundsen Seas ( Nicolas and Bromwich 2011 ; Holland and Kwok 2012 ; Schneider et al. 2012 ; Hosking et al. 2013 ). A deepening of the ASL over the Ross Sea is associated with increased warm, moist air advection onto western portions of West Antarctica and with decreased sea ice concentrations in the eastern Ross and Amundsen Seas. This is supported by recent studies that point to the SON warming of West Antarctica being

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