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Clémentde Boyer Montégut, Jérôme Vialard, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, Fabien Durand, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec

. Dulière , 2005 : On the representation of high latitude processes in the ORCA-LIM global coupled sea ice–ocean model. Ocean Modell. , 8 , 175 – 201 . Trenberth , K. E. , J. G. Olson , and W. G. Large , 1989 : A global ocean wind stress climatology based on the ECMWF analyses. NCAR/TN-338+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 93 pp . UNESCO , 1996 : Monthly and Annual Discharges Recorded at Vaiours Selected Stations, Twenty-Year Catal . Vol. 2, Discharge of

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

warming during 1997–98 El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 26 , 735 – 738 . Yu , L. , and M. M. Rienecker , 2000 : The Indian Ocean warming of 1997–1998. J. Geophys. Res. , 105 , 16923 – 16939 . Yu , L. , and R. A. Weller , 2007 : Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Heat Fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 527 – 539 . Yu , L. , R. A. Weller , and B. Sun , 2004a : Improving latent and sensible heat flux estimates for the Atlantic Ocean

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Annalisa Cherchi, Silvio Gualdi, Swadhin Behera, Jing Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, Toshio Yamagata, and Antonio Navarra

–Obhukov ( Louis 1979 ). The effect of the orographically induced gravity waves on momentum is parameterized by a linear theory and dimensional considerations ( Miller et al. 1989 ). The soil model parameterizes the content of heat and water in the soil, continental snow depth, and the heat of permanent ice over continents and seas ( Dümenil and Todini 1992 ). Vegetation effects are parameterized following Blondin (1989) . The oceanic component is the Océan Parallélisé (OPA) 8.2 ocean general circulation

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Tomoki Tozuka, Jing-Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, and Toshio Yamagata

Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil (OASIS 2.4; Valcke et al. 2000 ) coupling software package. No measures for flux adjustments are taken in the model. For the AGCM, a semi-Lagrangian transport method ( Rasch and Williamson 1990 ) is used for the advection of cloud water and water vapor, while the parameterization of Tiedtke (1989) is used to represent convection and that of Morcrette (1991) is used for radiation. The horizontal resolution of the OGCM is 2° × 2° cosine (latitude) with an increased meridional

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Bohua Huang and J. Shukla

Y. C. Sud , 1984 : Study of the dynamics of the intertropical convergence zone with a symmetric version of the GLAS climate model. J. Atmos. Sci. , 41 , 5 – 19 . Hall , A. , and M. Visbeck , 2002 : Synchronous variability in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean resulting from the annular mode. J. Climate , 15 , 3043 – 3057 . Hastenrath , S. , 2002 : Dipoles, temperature gradients, and tropical climate anomalies. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 735 – 738

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R. J. Murray, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, and C. J. C. Reason

drift is negligible in comparison with the interannual changes of 0.2°–1°C, which occurred in waters down to 1500 m during the transient simulations. The model ocean was global except for the Arctic seas, which were considered unimportant for this study and were blocked at the Greenland–Iceland–Scotland Ridge. No sea ice model was used, as the water properties in the (mainly Southern Hemisphere) sea ice regions were forced by prescribed and restoration fluxes in the same way as in open ocean regions

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Karumuri Ashok, Hisashi Nakamura, and Toshio Yamagata

Niño-3 sea surface temperature anomaly 1 (SSTA) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode index 2 (IODMI: Saji et al. 1999 ), respectively. These monthly indices have been derived from the Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) analyses datasets ( Rayner et al. 2003 ) for the period of 1979–2003. Our precipitation analysis has been carried out using a monthly gridded dataset (2.5° × 2.5°) from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP: Xie and

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

–Schubert convection, and a parameterization of the vertical momentum transport by cumulus convection are employed in the model. Different components of the GFDL CM2.1 model are coupled through the Flexible Modeling System (see online at http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/fms/ ). The atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice exchange fluxes every 2 h, and fluxes are conserved within machine precision. The particular coupled experiment we study is the so-called 1990 control run, where 1990 values of tracer gases, insolation

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Gary Meyers, Peter McIntosh, Lidia Pigot, and Mike Pook

in the subsurface tropical Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. II , 49 , 1549 – 1572 . Rayner , N. A. , D. E. Parker , E. B. Horton , C. K. Folland , L. V. Alexander , D. P. Rowell , E. C. Kent , and A. Kaplan , 2003 : Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 . 4407, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670 . Saji , N. H. , and Coauthors , 1999 : A dipole in the tropical Indian Ocean

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Suryachandra A. Rao, Sebastien Masson, Jing-Jia Luo, Swadhin K. Behera, and Toshio Yamagata

Community–Hamburg (ECHAM4.6) and the Ocean Parallelise (OPA8.2) ocean model coupled together and developed to run on the Earth Simulator. The atmosphere component of the CGCM, T106L19 ECHAM4.6 ( Roeckner et al. 1996 ), is coupled to the ocean component of the OPA8.2 through the Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil (OASIS 2.4; Valcke et al. 2000 ) coupling software package. The OPA8.2 ocean modeling system was developed by the Laboratoire d’Oceanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie (LODYC) team in Paris

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