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Paquita Zuidema, Chris Fairall, Leslie M. Hartten, Jeffrey E. Hare, and Daniel Wolfe

1. Introduction Monsoons are fundamentally driven by land–sea heating asymmetries. While the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) was well instrumented on land, for logistical reasons observations of the coincident conditions at sea were far fewer. One of the participating research vessels was the Mexican Navy’s R/V Altair , which positioned itself close to the mouth of the gulf intermediate between Mazatlan and La Paz from 7 July until 12 August. 1 The shipboard measurements contributed

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Wanqiu Wang and Pingping Xie

: Gulf of California sea surface temperatures and the North American monsoon: Mechanistic implications form observations. J. Climate , 15 , 2261 – 2281 . Mo , K. C. , and H. M. Juang , 2003 : Influence of sea surface temperature anomalies in the Gulf of California on North American monsoon rainfall. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 . 4112, doi:10.1029/2002JD002403 . Rayner , N. , E. B. Horton , D. E. Parker , C. K. Folland , and R. B. Hackett , 1996 : Version 2.2 of the Global Sea–Ice

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Brian D. McNoldy, Peter J. Rogers, and Richard K. Taft

easterly waves, upper-level inverted troughs, deep convection, and the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO); properties of the sea and land breezes, and the diurnal cycle of convection over the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) and surrounding region. 2. Data and analysis procedures a. Sounding data The extended NAME sounding network is shown in Fig. 1 . It consists of three nested domains: the tier II array (T2A), covering most of Mexico and the southwestern United States; the tier I array (T1A), covering the

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Timothy J. Lang, David A. Ahijevych, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Richard E. Carbone, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

Spectroradiometer (MODIS)], we suspect that much of this echo is sea clutter. As a result, we limit analyses to the eastern portion of our original domain, that is, the Gulf of California subdomain east to the SMO peaks subdomain ( Fig. 1b ). No effort was made to validate rainfall estimates from the radars. This will be addressed in the future. We examine rainfall and not radar reflectivity since the former is of most interest to climate scientists. While there are uncertainties in the rainfall estimates, we

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X. Gao, J. Li, and S. Sorooshian

to August 2004 were used for model lateral boundary forcing and internal grid initialization. The lateral forcing along the border of domain 1 was updated every 12 h, and the model initialization was at 1200 UTC every 5 days throughout the entire simulation period. Each reinitialization includes an additional 12-h model run for spinning up. Sea surface temperature (SST): The newly developed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)/ Aqua SST data (available online at http

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J. Craig Collier and Guang J. Zhang

horizontal resolution. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 2461 – 2481 . Taylor , K. E. , D. Williamson , and F. Zwiers , 2000 : The sea surface temperature and sea-ice concentration boundary conditions for AMIP II simulations. Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison Tech. Rep. 60, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 28 pp . Yang , Z-L. , D. Gochis , and W. J. Shuttleworth , 2001 : Evaluation of the simulations of the North American monsoon in the NCAR CCM3. Geophys. Res

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