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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

vertical levels ( Roeckner et al. 2003 ). A mass flux scheme ( Tiedtke 1989 ) is applied for cumulus convection with modifications for penetrative convection ( Nordeng 1994 ). The oceanic component is NEMO, which has a horizontal resolution of ORCA05 with 31 vertical levels without any further refinement over the tropics ( Madec 2008 ). The model is also embedded with the Louvain-la-Neuve Sea Ice Model, version 2 (LIM2; Timmermann et al. 2005 ). The atmospheric and oceanic fluxes are exchanged every 2

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Daehyun Kang, Daehyun Kim, Min-Seop Ahn, and Soon-Il An

Arctic sea ice variability ( Henderson et al. 2014 ). The MJO exhibits considerable year-to-year variability ( Hendon et al. 1999 ), which has practical implications for subseasonal-to-seasonal Earth system prediction, given that the MJO has a wide influence on the phenomena at those time scales. The seasonal tropical cyclone activity over the Atlantic, for example, is affected by how strong and how frequent the MJO is over the basin during the target season. Also, because the MJO influences the

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Lei Zhou, Ruomei Ruan, and Raghu Murtugudde

. , and K. H. Seo , 2019 : Impact of the Madden–Julian oscillation on Antarctic sea ice and its dynamical mechanism . Sci. Rep. , 9 , 10761 , . 10.1038/s41598-019-47150-3 Li , K. , W. Yu , Y. Yang , L. Feng , S. Liu , and L. Li , 2020 : Spring barrier to the MJO eastward propagation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 47 , e2020GL087788 , . 10.1029/2020GL087788 Liebmann , B. , and C. A. Smith , 1996

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

complex land–sea contrast and orography in the MC also exerts effects on the prominent tropical phenomenon such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an intraseasonal fluctuation ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ), during its passage through the MC ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Sobel et al. 2010 ; Oh et al. 2012 , 2013 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Hagos et al. 2016 ; Kim et al. 2017 ; Zhang and Ling 2017 ). Matthews (2000) and Hsu and Lee (2005) reveal

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

. The melting and thawing of sea ice were approximately accounted for. Not properly dealt with were the changes in runoff from land, although the 12-month running mean removes most of those effects. For the Pacific, we integrated southward from the Bering Strait, where through transports are small enough to be neglected, but could be considered. However, the Indian and Pacific Oceans were combined because of their connection through the Indonesian region, called the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). In

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

salinity balance in the Bay of Bengal, while horizontal advection related to the monsoon plays a dominant role in the north Indian Ocean ( Rao and Sivakumar 2003 ). In the tropical Indian Ocean, the seasonal cycle of the mixed layer salinity in the south-central Arabian Sea is mainly due to meridional advection driven by the monsoon winds, while freshwater flux due to precipitation may play an important role in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean ( Da-Allada et al. 2015 ). Seasonality of the mixed

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, Shuanglin Li, Harry Hendon, Oscar Alves, and Craig MacLachlan

25 vertical levels are used for the ocean model, with the first 12 levels in the upper 185 m and a maximum depth of 5 km. Atmosphere and ocean models are coupled using the Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil (OASIS) coupling software ( Valcke et al. 2000 ). The atmospheric model of POAMA-2 is initialized with the atmosphere–land initialization scheme (ALI) that captures the observed atmosphere state. ALI generates realistic atmosphere–land surface initial conditions by nudging the BAM3.0 model toward

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

differences between EX and DP, (b) mixing ratio differences between EX and DP, and cloud mixing ratio (water and ice), winds along transect, and precipitation (bottom bar) for (c) DP and (d) EX. Black shading shows topography and vertical dashed lines indicate the location of coastlines. Dashed red rectangles indicate the location of the sea-breeze front. Fig . 8. As in Fig. 7 , but at 1600 LST. Dashed red rectangles highlight wind patterns differences across simulations in the upper troposphere. The

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Jian Ling, Yuqing Zhao, and Guiwan Chen

Forecast System (PNU-CFS), CNRM-CM, and ECHAM5 with Snow–Ice–Thermocline Coupler (ECHAM5-SIT)] and two are uncoupled GCMs (MRI-AGCM3 and GISS-E2). It should be noted that the mean blocking effects of the three coupled models are weaker than those of uncoupled models, implying air–sea coupling could help MJO to propagate through the MC. Air–sea coupling could increase the amplitude of positive SST anomalies on the intraseasonal time scale ahead of the convection over the MC to favor propagation of the

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

be related to a more realistic air–sea feedback simulated in RASmod than in SASmod. b. Model experiments Initialized from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR; Saha et al. 2010 ) state on 1 January 1980, RASmod and SASmod were first integrated for 30 yr ( Zhu et al. 2017b ). After the 11th year of model simulation, restart files of the two free runs were saved daily for ocean (and sea ice) and every 12 h for atmosphere (and land). Based on these restart files, three sets of prediction

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