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Yi-Ching Chung, Stéphane Bélair, and Jocelyn Mailhot

fluxes, and rate due to blowing snow in the boundary layer, but very few have distinguished the effect of blowing snow on the seasonal evolution of snow and sea ice. Meanwhile, the significance of blowing snow sublimation has been argued in some studies (e.g., Steffen and DeMaria 1996 ; Papakyriakou 1999 ; Pomeroy and Essery 1999 ; Pomeroy and Li 2000 ; Persson et al. 2002 ; Savelyev et al. 2006 ). The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of blowing snow on the simulation

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Yi-Ching Chung, Stéphane Bélair, and Jocelyn Mailhot

1. Introduction As part of the Arctic system, snow-covering sea ice has long been recognized to be crucial in coupled ocean–ice–atmosphere models ( Maykut and Untersteiner 1971 ; Ledley 1991 ; Ebert and Curry 1993 ). Snow mainly has two large but opposite effects on the energy and mass balance of the ice floe in the Arctic Ocean. The first effect is related to the snow high albedo, which leads to significant solar radiation reflection back to the atmosphere, delaying the spring snowmelt

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Edgar L. Andreas, P. Ola G. Persson, Andrey A. Grachev, Rachel E. Jordan, Thomas W. Horst, Peter S. Guest, and Christopher W. Fairall

1. Introduction The turbulent momentum flux from the atmosphere to compact sea ice forces the ice to move and, in turn, drives ocean currents. It also creates pressure ridges where the ice converges, opens leads where the ice diverges, and redistributes deposited snow through blowing and drifting. The turbulent surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, in contrast, are typically secondary terms to the radiative components in the surface energy budget of sea ice (e.g., Jordan et al. 1999

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Sebastian H. Mernild, Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, and Jens H. Christensen

1. Introduction The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is the Northern Hemisphere’s largest terrestrial permanent ice- and snow-covered area and a reservoir of water, from a hydrological perspective (e.g., Box et al. 2006 ; Fettweis 2007 ; Richter-Menge et al. 2007 ; Mernild et al. 2008d , 2009a , b ), containing between 7.0-m and 7.4-m global sea level equivalent (SLE) ( Warrick and Oerlemans 1990 ; Gregory et al. 2004 ; Lemke et al. 2007 ). It is essential to predict and assess the impact of

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Ayumi Fujisaki-Manome, Greg E. Mann, Eric J. Anderson, Philip Y. Chu, Lindsay E. Fitzpatrick, Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Curtis R. Alexander, and David M. Wright

Alamos Sea Ice Model (UG-CICE; Gao et al. 2011 ; Hunke et al. 2015 ) and the unstructured grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM; Chen et al. 2006 , 2013 ). The model is driven by prescribed surface meteorology from HRRR forecasts. Given that both HRRR and GLOFS provide operational NOAA forecasts, linking these weather, ice, and hydrodynamic models is one way to enable the modeling suite to exchange rapidly changing lake-surface conditions during LES events; thereby improving forecast

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Edgar L. Andreas, Rachel E. Jordan, and Aleksandr P. Makshtas

1. Introduction Late in the drift of Ice Station Weddell, seawater began seeping into our instrument hut. This flooding was an unpleasant reminder of the main difference between Arctic sea ice and Antarctic sea ice: Even the perennial sea ice in the western Weddell Sea, where we had deployed Ice Station Weddell (ISW), is much thinner than perennial Arctic sea ice. The weight of our meteorological hut and the drifting snow that had accumulated around it eventually depressed the sea ice surface

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Lucas J. Sterzinger and Adele L. Igel

. Above 6 km, columns were the dominant diagnosed species, accounting for 90% or more of the diagnosed ice habits. Below 6 km, the habit type is a strong function of height with layers of plates, dendrites, and needles. Most importantly for the analysis below, dendrites are the dominant habit in a narrow layer between about 4 and 4.5 km. Fig . 9. Fraction of the terrain-aligned domain with ice present that were assigned a particular habit in wave 2; heights are kilometers above sea levels. 1) Mass

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Matthew C. Sanders, Jason M. Cordeira, and Nicholas D. Metz

of surface-based fronts are indicated in white, and (d) mean sea level pressure (hPa; black contours), integrated water vapor (mm; color shading for values > 20 mm), and integrated vapor transport (vectors; kg m −1 s −1 ; plotted for magnitudes > 250 kg m −1 s −1 ) with the locations of high- and low-pressure centers indicated by the blue “H” and red “L” symbols, respectively. b. 13 January 2018 ice jam The 13 January 2018 ice jam occurred in association with an antecedent maximum IVT magnitude

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Andrea Manrique-Suñén, Annika Nordbo, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Anton Beljaars, and Ivan Mammarella

scheme used in the Integrated Forecast System ( Viterbo and Beljaars 1995 ; van den Hurk et al. 2000 ; Balsamo et al. 2009 ). The surface characteristics of a grid box are represented as subgrid fractions of each surface type. Over land, each grid box is divided into six tiles: high vegetation, low vegetation, interception reservoir, snow on low vegetation and bare ground, high vegetation with snow beneath, and bare ground. Water grid boxes are described by two tiles, the sea ice fraction and open

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Matthew D. Cann and Allen B. White

produce concentrated salt solutions upon condensation and rapidly grow to precipitation size ( Jensen and Nugent 2017 ). Sea-salt aerosols have been used to partially explain areas of higher NBB rain frequency in the Sierra Nevada and are shown in abundance in the Northern Coast Ranges ( White et al. 2015 ). Lesser studied, and mainly in laboratory settings, is the ability of biological components to attach to sea-salt aerosols which can act as ice nucleating particles at temperatures of −5°C, or

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