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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

altered by a warming climate at higher latitudes (e.g., Burnett et al. 2003 ; Kunkel et al. 2009 ; Notaro et al. 2014 ). Recent research using model output has also posited that future Arctic precipitation may substantially increase, largely driven by local surface evaporation effects—the prime mechanism causing overwater shallow snowfall—due to diminished sea ice coverage ( Bintanja and Selten 2014 ). The CloudSat data record serves as a valuable reference to monitor future changes in shallow

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

experiment in this study was designed to study Typhoon Fengshen from its genesis stage to its mature stage ( Hashino et al. 2013 ). The winds, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential heights in the NICAM simulation were initialized with the 0.5° ECMWF Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis at 0000 UTC 15 June 2008 ( Moncrieff et al. 2012 ) and integrated for one week only. The surface variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice cover, and soil moisture are initialized with 1

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

value appears low, the MHS results presented here are similar to the 2009–11 climatology provided by the MIRS, version 4.0, product in Boukabara et al. (2011) ; the AMSR2 and SSMIS values are certainly too high. Closer analysis of the data found that the majority of the precipitation generated by the AMSR2 and SSMIS retrievals was associated with the summertime melting of the snow and sea ice over the Arctic. The second region where discrepancies between the XT and CS retrievals are evident is over

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

.g., Neiman et al. 2008 , 2011 ; Warner et al. 2012 ; Kim et al. 2013 ). Furthermore, once such systems make landfall they can be impacted by topography and generate substantial orographic precipitation. In the western United States, a large fraction of ARs occur in winter in the form of snowfall or rainfall over snow and ice surfaces. This makes it more difficult for retrieving precipitation from infrared (IR) and microwave (MW) sensors, both of which are commonly used in merged precipitation products

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

. 2. East Africa: Topography and climate The area examined in this work extends between 5°S and 20°N and 28° and 52°E, including southern Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, and northern Tanzania. A very complex geography characterizes a region shaped by the friction between tectonic plates, which generated the Great Rift Valley, one of Africa’s best-known geological features ( Fig. 1 ; UNEP 2008 ). The Rift Valley extends over 5500 km, from the Red Sea’s junction with the

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Abebe Sine Gebregiorgis, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang E. Hong, Nicholas J. Carr, Jonathan J. Gourley, Walt Petersen, and Yaoyao Zheng

over the contiguous United States (CONUS). The CONUS comprises diverse topography that ranges from 0 (South and East Coast regions) to 4500 m (Intermountain West) above mean sea level. Moreover, the region’s diverse topographic nature (ranging from lowland and flat flood plains to high mountains), diverse climatic zones, diverse land use and land cover, and a wide array of precipitation systems (tropical and midlatitude cyclones, airmass thunderstorms, orographic precipitation, supercells, etc

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