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Stefan Hagemann, Cui Chen, Jan O. Haerter, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, and Claudio Piani

.1 for the ocean ( Madec et al. 1998 ), and GELATO 2 for sea ice ( Salas-Mélia 2002 ). The distributions of marine, desert, urban aerosols, and sulfate aerosols were specified, whereas for aerosols only the direct effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols was taken into account. 3) IPSL The L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 4 (IPSL CM4; hereafter simply IPSL) includes the submodels LMDZ-4 for the atmosphere ( Hourdin et al. 2006 ), ORCA for the ocean (based on the OPA model

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Wai Kwok Wong, Stein Beldring, Torill Engen-Skaugen, Ingjerd Haddeland, and Hege Hisdal

and intercomparison for the European Alps . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4124 , doi:10.1029/2002JD002287 . Gerten, D. , Rost S. , von Bloh W. , and Lucht W. , 2008 : Causes of change in 20th century global river discharge . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L20405 , doi:10.1029/2008GL035258 . Gordon, C. , Cooper C. , Senior C. A. , Banks H. , Gregory J. M. , Johns T. C. , Mitchell J. B. F. , and Wood R. A. , 2000 : The simulation of SST, sea ice extents and ocean heat

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Pete Falloon, Richard Betts, Andrew Wiltshire, Rutger Dankers, Camilla Mathison, Doug McNeall, Paul Bates, and Mark Trigg

processes, gravity wave drag, microphysics, and sea ice schemes, plus major changes to convection, land surface, and cloud schemes, and inclusion of aerosols; a detailed comparison of the two models is given by Martin et al. (2006) and Johns et al. (2006) . Compared to HadCM3, the developments to HadGEM1 have led to a substantial improvement in the processes represented, including the hydrological cycle, particularly for oceanic surface freshwater fluxes ( Rodriguez et al. 2010 ). The hydrological

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G. P. Weedon, S. Gomes, P. Viterbo, W. J. Shuttleworth, E. Blyth, H. Österle, J. C. Adam, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, and M. Best

successive short-term integrations of a general circulation model (GCM) that assimilated [via three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3D-Var)] various satellite data along with atmospheric soundings and land and sea surface observations ( Uppala et al. 2005 ). The reanalysis procedure used to create ERA-40 merged global subdaily observations with a prior estimate based on short integrations of a comprehensive GCM, allowing for uncertainties in each, using a GCM configuration that was consistent

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