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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

relative importance of warm-rain versus ice-based microphysical processes in NAME convection. Does this vary by terrain, particularly land versus sea? Further, do disturbed meteorological regimes significantly affect convective microphysics, relative to convection during undisturbed periods? Do these regime differences vary by terrain as well? Based on NAME thermodynamic analyses, Johnson et al. (2007 , 2010) demonstrated gradual deepening of convection over the land throughout the day, while the

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

, rain, ice, snow, and graupel. The configuration of control variables is designed to be flexible to include all or part of the prognostic variables listed above. Since the hydrometeors are directly related to the cloud and precipitation, these variables are included in the control vectors to explore the data impact on the analysis and forecasts, especially in the assimilation of precipitation observations. Since very little is known about the forecast error characteristics of the prognostic

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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

spaceborne W-band radar measurements at ranges close to and crossing the sea-surface range? IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 46 , 1644 – 1651 . 10.1109/TGRS.2008.916085 Berne, A. , Delrieu G. , Andrieu H. , and Creutin J-D. , 2004a : Influence of the vertical profile of reflectivity on radar-estimated rain rates at short time steps. J. Hydrometeor. , 5 , 296 – 310 . 10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0296:IOTVPO>2.0.CO;2 Berne, A. , Delrieu G. , Creutin J-D. , and Obled C. , 2004b

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