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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

TropFlux on the 1° × 1° grid. The ERA-I air temperature is consistent with this SST, according to the physics of the ERA-I model. ERA-I uses NCEP 7-day optimally interpolated SST (OISST; Reynolds et al. 2002 ) for 1989–2001 and daily Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA; Donlon et al. 2012 ) from 2009 to the time of this writing. 3. Methods We isolate intraseasonal variability in OLR, then composite the surface flux variables on the OLR-based index. We select symmetric MJO

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 , 1871 – 1891 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00157.1 . Yu , L. , and R. A. Weller , 2007 : Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005) . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 527 – 539 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-4-527 . Yuter , S. E. , and R. A. Houze , 1997 : Measurements of raindrop size distributions over the Pacific warm pool and implications for Z – R relations . J. Appl. Meteor. , 36 , 847 – 867 , doi: 10

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Nick Guy and David P. Jorgensen

instruments on board the WP-3D aircraft (hereafter P-3) operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) were deployed during a portion of the intensive observing period (IOP; 1 October 2011–15 January 2012) of the DYNAMO project ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ), with the primary objectives to provide information regarding tropical convection and air–sea interactions. Measurements of environmental state variables (e.g., temperature and relative humidity) and 3D storm structure (via Doppler

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

feedbacks from variable sea surface temperature. Simulations are limited to ~10 days, which is sufficient for establishing a quasi RCE with only small mean temperature and moisture trends, and allows for much higher resolution and model fidelity than used in previous cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations. 3. Convective structure a. Basic convective conditions We begin our analysis with an overview of the basic convective structures that are present to some degree in all of the experiments. Plots of

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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

: Tracking pulses of the Madden–Julian oscillation . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 , 1871 – 1891 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00157.1 . Yoon , J.-H. , 1981 : Effects of islands on equatorial waves . J. Geophys. Res. , 86 , 10 913 – 10 920 , doi: 10.1029/JC086iC11p10913 . Yu , L. , and R. A. Weller , 2007 : Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Heat Fluxes (OAFlux) for the global ice-free oceans . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 527 – 539 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-4-527 . Zhang , C. , 2005 : Madden

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

Littoral Air–Sea Processes (LASP) ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ; Zhang et al. 2013 ). Herein, these efforts will be referred to collectively as DYNAMO. Two MJO events were comprehensively sampled in DYNAMO, providing an unprecedented opportunity to diagnose the key processes during the transition from shallow to deep convection in the MJO. The MJO is a zonal overturning circulation that propagates eastward across the tropics at ~5 m s −1 in connection with an upper-level divergent wind pattern, which

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

variability in sea surface temperature (SST) coupling ( Flatau et al. 1997 ; Shinoda et al. 1998 ; Waliser et al. 1999 ), the discharge–recharge mechanism discussed by Hendon and Liebmann (1990) and Bladé and Hartmann (1993) , large-scale horizontal moisture advection ( Maloney 2009 ), and the moisture mode instability ( Raymond and Torres 1998 ; Raymond and Fuchs 2009 ; Sobel and Maloney 2013 ). However, none of the aforementioned theories fully explain the transition from dry to moist regimes

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

seasons ( Wyrtki 1973 ). The lack of persistent equatorial surface easterly wind makes the Indian Ocean the only tropical ocean without an equatorial cold tongue ( Schott et al. 2009 ). Its sea surface temperature (SST) undergoes irregular interannual fluctuations, known as the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), which is similar to ENSO in some aspects and distinct in others ( Saji et al. 1999 ). Its atmosphere is often characterized by basin-scale mean subsidence due to overturning circulations forced by

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

atmosphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 1354 – 1372 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<1354:ETGMSO>2.0.CO;2 . Yu , L. , and R. A. Weller , 2007 : Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005) . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 527 – 539 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-4-527 . Yuan , J. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 2013 : Deep convective systems observed by A-Train in the tropical Indo-Pacific region affected by the MJO . J. Atmos. Sci. , 70 , 465 – 486 , doi: 10

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Douglas C. Stolz, Steven A. Rutledge, Weixin Xu, and Jeffrey R. Pierce

significant variations in the relative concentrations of sea salt and anthropogenic aerosols over the CIO before, during, and after peak convective activity associated with the October and November MJO episodes (2011). Fine-mode, anthropogenic pollutants were found to be abundant in the time leading up to MJO onset before being washed out as the heavy rain associated with active MJO convection developed. In the wake of active MJO convection, sea salt aerosols were shown to increase during westerly wind

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