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Yuntao Wei and Zhaoxia Pu

1. Introduction The 20–90-day tropical intraseasonal oscillation (TISO) has strong seasonality ( Lau and Waliser 2012 ). The wintertime TISO or the so-called Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ) features a planetary-scale ( Li and Zhou 2009 ; Wei et al. 2018 ) convection–circulation coupled system that propagates eastward (~5 m s −1 ) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific ( Hendon and Salby 1994 ). In contrast, the boreal summer intraseasonal

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

considered the MJO to have consistent characteristics throughout the entire year ( Hendon and Salby 1994 ; Wheeler and Hendon 2004 ). However, it has been shown that the consideration of the seasonality of the MJO is important both for developing real-time proxies for its location and magnitude and for process-based studies ( Kikuchi et al. 2012 ; Kiladis et al. 2014 ; Jiang et al. 2018 ). Within this study, we focus on cross-scale interactions within the boreal summer MJO, which has been labeled with

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

coasts for rainfall associated with land–sea effects ( Bergemann and Jakob 2016 ). Furthermore, PWV is readily available from radiosondes and different satellite platforms. However, these observations are often not adequate for representing the convective diurnal cycle given their temporal and/or spatial resolutions, availability only in clear-sky conditions, or being less reliable over land. Ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) or GPS-derived PWV is advantageous because it has high

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