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Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Norman B. Wood, Guosheng Liu, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane O. Sy, Michael Poellot, and Chuntao Liu

snowfall-rate–radar reflectivity relationships, referred to as the mass-flux (MF) method, is designed to cover a wide range of reflectivities, cloud types, and geographical locations. Consider a precipitating cloud layer with a melting layer (ML). From the top to the bottom of the ML—a thickness of 200–500 m ( Fabry and Zawadzki 1995 )—there is approximately conservation of water mass flux. Snow, with a reflectivity of Z t (reflectivity at the top of the ML) and precipitation rate S , is falling

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Mircea Grecu, Lin Tian, Gerald M. Heymsfield, Ali Tokay, William S. Olson, Andrew J. Heymsfield, and Aaron Bansemer

potential time difference between the two types of estimates of up to 6 min, and in an Eulerian framework PSDs may change significantly in a 6-min interval. At the same time, especially given complex processes such as ice splintering and aggregation, it is possible that the ice particles and the associated backscattering properties considered in this study do not cover the entire spectrum encountered in nature, which may occasionally result in significantly larger errors than expected from the

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