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W. James Steenburgh
,
Julie A. Cunningham
,
Philip T. Bergmaier
,
Bart Geerts
, and
Peter Veals

lake-effect snow each year (e.g., Muller 1966 ; Norton and Bolsenga 1993 ; Niziol et al. 1995 ; Jones et al. 2022 ). East of Lake Ontario, the Tug Hill Plateau (herein Tug Hill) averages over 500 cm (200 in.) of snow annually, a result of frequent lake-effect snowstorms and local enhancement processes due to coastal and orographic effects (e.g., Minder et al. 2015 ; Veals and Steenburgh 2015 ; Campbell and Steenburgh 2017 ; Steenburgh and Campbell 2017 ; Veals et al. 2018 ). During thaws

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Sudheer R. Bhimireddy
and
David A. R. Kristovich

such numerical models must be represented by bulk values (boundary layer depth, turbulent kinetic energy, etc.) approximated by parameterizations. Scientific understanding has evolved for PBL that develop over quasi-uniform surfaces, particularly over land areas, to over highly nonuniform surface covers and topographic features where multiple local internal PBL can interact ( LeMone et al. 2019 ). Among the current challenges and opportunities highlighted by LeMone et al. (2019) are

Open access
David A. R. Kristovich
,
Luke Bard
,
Leslie Stoecker
, and
Bart Geerts

clouds between the western and southern shores of Lake Ontario and the initiation of lake-effect clouds. The satellite image in Fig. 3 shows that the low-level clouds originating from over Lake Erie were not evident over and north of the Lake Ontario shoreline. However, exactly where the UPBL clouds from Lake Erie dissipated is difficult to discern due to the snow-covered ground below them. Forward-oriented photographic images taken from the UWKA along flight stack B provide some insight into the

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Philip T. Bergmaier
and
Bart Geerts

wind profiles from soundings. Lake Ontario was mostly ice free during the 7–9 January event, except for some of the bays and inlets in its northeastern corner. Ice cover and lake surface temperatures (LSTs) were manually specified for the WRF simulation using gridded surface- and satellite-based analyses valid just prior to the event (6 January) from the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System (GLCFS). Following Gerbush et al. (2008) , areas

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