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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

Littoral Air–Sea Processes (LASP) ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ; Zhang et al. 2013 ). Herein, these efforts will be referred to collectively as DYNAMO. Two MJO events were comprehensively sampled in DYNAMO, providing an unprecedented opportunity to diagnose the key processes during the transition from shallow to deep convection in the MJO. The MJO is a zonal overturning circulation that propagates eastward across the tropics at ~5 m s −1 in connection with an upper-level divergent wind pattern, which

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Weixin Xu, Steven A. Rutledge, Courtney Schumacher, and Masaki Katsumata

variability (as a function of MJO phase) within the ridge is greater than outside the ridge. This SST ridge is consistent with the presence of the Seychelles–Chagos thermocline ridge ( Vialard et al. 2008 ) in the central IO. Increases in SST over the equatorial IO preceded the rainfall maxima there ( Fig. 2 ) by one to two phases. For example, SSTs over the DYNAMO region began increasing starting from the most suppressed phase (phase 6; Fig. 5f ), peaking one phase prior to the active MJO period (phase

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Richard H. Johnson and Paul E. Ciesielski

convective activity throughout the life cycle of the MJO. Surface, sounding, and radar measurements collected during DYNAMO have shed new light on properties of the boundary layer and lower troposphere from the suppressed to active phases of the MJO. During suppressed periods, boundary layer circulations frequently developed that brought about organized roll and cellular patterns of shallow convection and played a role in lower-tropospheric moistening ( Bellenger et al. 2015 ; Rowe and Houze 2015

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