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Jake P. Mulholland
,
Stephen W. Nesbitt
, and
Robert J. Trapp

CAPE. Bosart et al. (2006) studied an F3 supercell tornado in Massachusetts and found that flow channeling fostered local enhancements to the low-level vertical wind shear profile, creating an environment favorable for supercell tornadogenesis. Miglietta et al. (2017) and Scheffknecht et al. (2017) showed that terrain impacted the triggering, location, intensity, and longevity of orographic supercells by way of flow perturbations that also enhanced low-level vertical wind shear. Tripoli and

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Jake P. Mulholland
,
Stephen W. Nesbitt
,
Robert J. Trapp
,
Kristen L. Rasmussen
, and
Paola V. Salio

.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<0809:TTRMMT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<0809:TTRMMT>2.0.CO;2 Lichtenstein , E. R. , 1980 : La depresion del Noroeste Argentino (The northwestern Argentina low). Ph.D. dissertation, Ciudad Universitaria, 223 pp. Markowski , P. M. , and Y. P. Richardson , 2014 : The influence of environmental low-level shear and cold pools on tornadogenesis: Insights from idealized simulations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 243 – 275 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0159.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-13

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Russ S. Schumacher
,
Deanna A. Hence
,
Stephen W. Nesbitt
,
Robert J. Trapp
,
Karen A. Kosiba
,
Joshua Wurman
,
Paola Salio
,
Martin Rugna
,
Adam C. Varble
, and
Nathan R. Kelly

RELAMPAGO-CACTI domain. A few examples of environments that supported strong supercells but lacked the low-level shear needed for tornadogenesis will be given in section 4 . Although the RELAMPAGO-CACTI domain does not frequently support low-level rotation in supercells, severe hail-producing storms are commonly observed in this region ( Mezher et al. 2012 ; Rasmussen et al. 2014 ; Kumjian et al. 2020 ). The significant hail parameter (SHIP), which was developed for operational use by the U.S. Storm

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James N. Marquis
,
Adam C. Varble
,
Paul Robinson
,
T. Connor Nelson
, and
Katja Friedrich

over complex terrain during COPS . Meteor. Z. , 17 , 931 – 948 , https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2008/0348 . 10.1127/0941-2948/2008/0348 Kyrouac , J. , and D. Holdridge , 2018 : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation (MET). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility, accessed 1 September 2019, https://doi.org/10.5439/1025220 . 10.5439/1025220 Lee , B. D. , and R. Wilhelmson , 1997 : The numerical simulation of nonsupercell tornadogenesis. Part I: Initiation and

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