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Paul M. Markowski

among hook echoes, rear-flank downdrafts, and tornadogenesis, their dynamical relationship remains poorly understood. Our current confusion serves as a motivation for the collection of new, in situ observations having unprecedented spatial and temporal detail within hook echoes and rear-flank downdrafts. These data are the foundation of a companion paper ( Markowski et al. 2002) . 2. Hook echoes a. Characteristics The hook echo first was documented by Stout and Huff (1953 ; Fig. 1 ) in an Illinois

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Johannes M. L. Dahl

each other, which is excluded from the linear analysis. One example in which this interaction is relevant in tornadoes is demonstrated by Orf (2019) , who shows how helical vortex filaments merge during tornadogenesis. Despite these limitations, Kelvin’s approach provides detailed insight into the many wave types ubiquitous in concentrated vortices. Moreover, his results may be considered a first-order description of the processes relevant for understanding vortex breakdown and the development of

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Bogdan Antonescu
,
David M. Schultz
,
Fiona Lomas
, and
Thilo Kühne

speculated that less favorable conditions for tornadogenesis occurs in July–August likely because southern Europe is under the influence of the subsidence associated with the Azores anticyclone. Similarly, Matsangouras et al. (2014) showed that tornadoes in Greece tend to occur more frequently in June–July ( Fig. 5 ), especially in northern Greece, and waterspouts tend to occur in September–October ( Fig. 6 ). Monthly distributions with a peak during autumn have also been observed for Spain ( Gayà 2015

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Tammy M. Weckwerth
and
David B. Parsons

. Carlson , and T. T. Warner , 1987 : Sensitivity of the Great Plains severe-storm environment to soil-moisture distributions. Mon. Wea. Rev , 115 , 2660 – 2673 . Lee , B. D. , and R. B. Wilhelmson , 1997 : The numerical simulation of non-supercell tornadogenesis. Part I: Initiation and evolution of pretornadic misocyclone circulations along a dry outflow boundary. J. Atmos. Sci , 54 , 32 – 60 . Lee , B. D. , R. D. Farley , and M. R. Hjelmfelt , 1991 : A numerical case study

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