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Michael Hill, Ron Calhoun, H. J. S. Fernando, Andreas Wieser, Andreas Dörnbrack, Martin Weissmann, Georg Mayr, and Robert Newsom

been known to be hazardous to aircraft. For example, United Airlines Flight 585 crashed near the Colorado Springs Airport in 1991, and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) judged rotors to be a possible contributing factor ( National Transportation Safety Board 2001 ). However, an insufficient understanding of the encountered turbulence prevented direct attribution of the causes for the accident. There have been several previous studies dedicated to the complex flows in the lee of

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James D. Doyle, Vanda Grubišić, William O. J. Brown, Stephan F. J. De Wekker, Andreas Dörnbrack, Qingfang Jiang, Shane D. Mayor, and Martin Weissmann

, transitioning to weaker and unsteady flow often directed back toward the mountain (e.g., Holmboe and Klieforth 1957 ; Kuettner 1959 ; Doyle and Durran 2002 ). Although there has been considerable anecdotal evidence of the ferocious nature of the turbulence associated with rotors ( Holmboe and Klieforth 1957 ; Kahn et al. 1997 ; National Transportation Safety Board 1992 ; Whelan 2000 ; Bond et al. 2006 ), the internal structure of rotors and associated turbulence has largely been unexplored. Recent

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Junhong Wang, Jianchun Bian, William O. Brown, Harold Cole, Vanda Grubišić, and Kate Young

.0.CO;2 Holton, J. R. , 1992 : An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology . Academic Press, 507 pp . Johansson, C. , and Bergström H. , 2005 : An auxiliary tool to determine the height of the boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 115 , 423 – 432 . 10.1007/s10546-004-1424-5 Kim, Y-J. , Eckermann S. D. , and Chun H-Y. , 2003 : An overview of the past, present and future of gravity-wave drag parameterization for numerical climate and weather prediction models. Atmos.–Ocean , 41

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Vanda Grubišić and Brian J. Billings

individual stations along these three lines is approximately 3 km. Each station has a standard 10-m meteorological tower, and sensors for wind, temperature, relative humidity, and pressure. All quantities are measured to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. Sensors are sampled every three seconds, and these readings are temporally averaged over 30-s nonoverlapping intervals. Thirty-second data are transmitted via radio communication to the base station in Independence, and from there, via

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