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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

accuracy of many reanalyses ( Dai 2006 ; Reichle et al. 2011 ; Ruane 2010a , b ). A well-known problem with reanalyses is that the water and energy budgets are not closed (conserved) by construct ( Saha et al. 2010 ; Trenberth and Smith 2005 ). In general, reanalyses overestimate both surface evaporation and precipitation, leading to accelerated global hydrologic cycling ( Trenberth et al. 2009 , 2011 ). Trenberth et al. (2011) recently assessed the global hydrological cycles from eight

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

this approach. Mixing diagrams diagnose the land and PBL fluxes simultaneously, and therefore provide the components of the full PBL budget of heat and moisture, which serves as the second core LoCo diagnostic. As shown in S09 and S11 , how anomalies and/or errors in the surface fluxes computed by a particular LSM–PBL coupling are then translated into the atmospheric water and energy cycle can then be quantified using this approach. The third LoCo diagnostic that has been developed is the

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

. 2005 ). The availability of such a large quantity of water for ET has a sizeable effect on surface energy and water budgets ( Pielke 2001 ). Increases in latent heating with additional water are offset by decreases in sensible heating, resulting in changes to the surface temperature and moisture fields ( Barnston and Schickedanz 1984 ; DeAngelis et al. 2010 ; Kueppers et al. 2007 ; Ozdogan et al. 2010 ; Pielke 2001 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ). The repartitioning of net radiation into latent heating

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

using a mesoscale atmospheric model, with up to 20% increases over individual locations. While irrigation has been shown to influence the spatial distribution of precipitation over the Great Plains and upper Midwest, identification of the relative quantity of irrigated water that falls as precipitation within the region allows for a better understanding of how irrigation affects the regional water budget. DeAngelis et al. (2010) employed a backward trajectory technique based on Dominguez et al

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Agustín Robles-Morua, Enrique R. Vivoni, and Alex S. Mayer

from energy balance calculations using the Penman–Monteith equation and soil moisture or canopy water availability. Additional model details can be found in Ivanov et al. (2004) . The tRIBS model operates on individual catchments represented by a TIN consisting of elevation, channel, and boundary nodes that capture topographic features and allow a reduction in the number of computational elements ( Vivoni et al. 2004 ). A TIN is associated with a Voronoi polygon network that serves as the finite

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