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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

deserves attention. Considering the important contribution of diabatic processes to the amplification of the downstream midlatitude RWP during ET, the increasing availability of water vapor in a changing climate suggests that an associated increase in latent heat release may strengthen impacts such as downstream ridge amplification. Research is needed to address this question and to explore how this extreme form of tropical–extratropical interaction could change with a changing climate. Acknowledgments

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

the large vertical gradient of water vapor in the tropopause region implies large gradients in radiative cooling ( Zierl and Wirth 1997 ). Chagnon and Gray (2015) hypothesized that radiative processes thereby influence the propagation of Rossby waves even on the weather time scale. Based on idealized models, it was shown that a sharper waveguide is associated with a faster phase speed ( Harvey et al. 2016 ). More generally, longwave radiative cooling has been demonstrated to substantially modify

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