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Graeme L. Stephens

~m ozone and the 2.7 um water vapor bands. Appl. Opt., 7, 1167-1177.Goody, R. M., 1952: A statistical model for water vapour absorption. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 78, 165-169.--, 1964a: Atmospheric Radiation I.' Theoretical Basis. Clarendon Press, 436 pp. , 1964b: The transmission of radiation through an inhomo geneous atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 21, 575-581.Green, J. S. A., 1967: Division of radiative streams into internal transfer and cooling to space. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 93

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

vapor. Radiosondes, the traditional means of obtaining water vapor measurements, are insufficient because they provide vertical profile information at widely distributed locations, are typically only available twice a day, and sometimes contain significant errors and biases (e.g., Soden and Lanzante 1996 ; Guichard et al. 2000 ; Wang et al. 2002 ; Revercomb et al. 2003 ; Turner et al. 2003 ; Ciesielski et al. 2003 ). Additionally, there is a general absence of operational, scanning ground

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Robert Wood

. Fig . 10. Vertical profiles of water vapor q and liquid water q l mixing ratios, equivalent potential temperature θ e , and temperature T for a summertime shallow and quite well-mixed STBL observed over the North Sea to the east of a ridge. Means from horizontal legs are depicted by dots. The dotted lines in each case show the values expected for a well-mixed layer. Adapted from Nicholls (1984) . Fig . 11. Photograph of the stratocumulus cloud top taken on a research flight over the

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

of futurework. Definitions and terminology. Cumulus parameterization requires the creation of subgrid-scale implicitclouds, which vertically transport heat, water vapor,and other quantities, generally in the absence of gridscale saturation. Closure assumptions are required todefine the relationship between these implicit cloudsand the grid-scale variables. For mesoscale models, theform of closure may have to difl~r from that for largescale models (Fritsch and Chappell 1980; Frank 1983).Details

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Kuo-Nan Liou

theice and water content of high and middle clouds fromparameterization of Nimbus-6 HIRS data using acombination of water vapor and carbon dioxide channels. Liou (1977), in particular, proposed a theoreticalretrieval technique to infer the cirrus cloud amountand thickness by means of four radiance measurementsJUNE 1986 KUO-NAN LIOU 1175~0O~ 20C)uz~.lU =.-.-.-.a DJF I

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Richard A. Anthes

existing technology, requiring onlyimplementation of existing computer and advancedobservational systems. Considerable progress in developing improved models of physical effects of terrain, surface and boundary layer fluxes of momentum, heat, and water vapor, latent heating associatedwith condensation and evaporation, and radiativeeffects has also been made in research models. Thus,we may hypothesize that the only fundamental difc 1983 American Meteorological SocietyJUNE 1983

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Andrew Staniforth and Jean Côté

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 119 Williamson and Rasch (1989), Williamson (1990),and Rasch and Williamson ( 1990a, 1990b, 1991 ) havepursued this approach and thoroughly compared spectral and semi-Lagrangian schemes for the transport ofwater vapor in otherwise Eulerian, hydrostatic primitive-equation models, in the context of both mediumrange forecasting and general circulation modeling. Thetransport of water vapor

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T. N. Krishnamurti

/ I X I ~ I ! ! ~ , ,-~,lr- , r-..~uT--%T 0 40 50 60 7'0 80 90 I00 I I 0 120 , '~-. , , , ~ ~ r~..., '~.._j.~r , ,~, / - I 40 0 60 70 80 90 I00 I lO IZO 20 L L ,o 3o 4o ~o 6o ?o 80 9o ~oo t~od3- ~' ',~.~L/ ~.J V"~o~r'~ o 30 40 ,50 60 70 80 90 I00 I I0 120FIG. 10. Mean zonal water vapor ttux fields for: (a) 1-15 June; (b) 16-30 June; (c) 7-18 July; (d) 25 July-6 Aug. Units kg/m s-~ (from

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

splitting, competition for resources is also a problem for parallel splitting because it can result in unrealistically strong removal of resources. The most egregious cases of this are, for example, negative concentrations of water vapor, hydrometeors, or other tracer species. These are typically resolved by rescaling tendencies to prevent overconsumption. This approach may leave more subtle cases untreated and, where applied, results in transport that does not locally satisfy the transport equations of

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David M. Schultz and Philip N. Schumacher

additional concern for assessing MSI using mesoscale-model output involves how the model is initialized. Observations of water substance (vapor, cloud water, hydrometeors) in the atmosphere tend to be more sparse than observations of the thermal, wind, or mass fields. Therefore, models rely heavily on developing their own water fields. If the model simulation is started as a static initialization (i.e., lacks cloud water and precipitation fields at the initial time; the so-called cold start), like many

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