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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

water vapor bands are most sensitive to the middle- to upper-tropospheric humidity. Given this high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution, these new-generation imagers are better able to track coherent clouds and water vapor features to derive atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) that provide estimates of tropospheric winds ( Velden et al. 2005 ). That is, clouds or water vapor features can be selected from an image at time t and then the backward and forward motion vectors from t − 10 min to

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

( Tao et al. 1989 ), MP Morrison ( Morrison et al. 2009 ), and MP WDM6 ( Lim and Hong 2010 ) plus the CTL simulation ( Thompson et al. 2008 ). All of these schemes contain six classes of hydrometeors: water vapor, cloud water, rain, snow, ice, and graupel. In addition, MP LIN , MP WSM6 , and CTL are one-moment schemes containing the mixing ratios of the hydrometeors, while the others are two-moment schemes predicting both the mixing ratios and the number concentrations of the hydrometeor species

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