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Abdul Jabbar Abdullah

Solitary waves have been observed in shallow water. In the present paper some evidence is presented for the existence of similar phenomena in the atmosphere. A possible mechanism for the formation of atmospheric solitary waves is described, and a case study is discussed in support of this mechanism. Some speculations are made about some possible effects of these disturbances on the local weather.

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Charles H. Paxton and Daniel A. Sobien

On 25 March 1995, a large solitary wave, seemingly from nowhere, washed ashore along the normally tranquil Gulf Coast of Florida from Tampa Bay to south of Naples. On this Saturday morning, many beachgoers and coastal residents saw either a large wave, a surge, or a seiche. The wave was typically described as 3 m or greater, breaking between 0.5 and 3 km offshore, and taking 120–180 s to arrive at the shore. Just prior to the wave's arrival at the beach, witnesses reported a rapid runout of water, then a huge 15–25-m runup of water onto the beach corresponding to a 2–3-m vertical run-up height. Some people reported several smaller waves. This was likely due to local effects. This wave was generated and amplified by a large-amplitude atmospheric gravity wave transiting southeastward over the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The atmospheric gravity wave and the water wave moved over a channel of water depth sufficient to maintain the waves in phase allowing resonation of the shallow water wave. Surface winds appeared to have a negligible affect, increasing only slightly (3–5 m s−1) along the path of the atmospheric gravity wave and opposing propagation of the water wave.

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Big Sky Resort, Big Sky, Montana, 5–9 June 1995

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William L. Donn, Stanley D. Gedzelman, and N. K. Balachandran

We propose that traveling internal gravity waves, like the lee waves referred to by Lilly, can have a significant effect in the vertical transfer of kinetic energy and momentum from the westerly flow. A program to study the effect is described here.

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L. Cavaleri, B. Fox-Kemper, and M. Hemer

upper boundary condition for an ocean model is not restoring or having fixed fluxes—it is a full atmospheric model. Extending the range of interaction has benefited both communities. In the 1980s, wave modelers were simply users of meteorological output products—in practice, surface wind fields. However, it was quickly realized that waves imply a feedback to the atmosphere, capable of directly affecting the evolution of weather systems. This led, at least in some institutions, to two-way coupling of

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Gregory Dusek, Christopher DiVeglio, Louis Licate, Lorraine Heilman, Katie Kirk, Christopher Paternostro, and Ashley Miller

about 2 m in height that crashed into a jetty, knocking several people into the water and resulting in multiple injuries ( Bailey et al. 2014 ). There were other eyewitness reports along the U.S. East Coast of a large wave with impacts similar to what might be expected from a tsunami wave. It quickly became apparent that this large wave was a meteotsunami, or an atmospherically induced ocean wave in the tsunami-frequency band ( Bailey et al. 2014 ; Wertman et al. 2014 ). An intense squall line

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David M. Tratt, John A. Hackwell, Bonnie L. Valant-Spaight, Richard L. Walterscheid, Lynette J. Gelinas, James H. Hecht, Charles M. Swenson, Caleb P. Lampen, M. Joan Alexander, Lars Hoffmann, David S. Nolan, Steven D. Miller, Jeffrey L. Hall, Robert Atlas, Frank D. Marks Jr., and Philip T. Partain

. 2009 ). GWs are waves in a fluid medium where the restoring force is buoyancy; they are the ubiquitous consequence of powerful disturbances in the atmosphere and are caused by thunderstorms, TCs, and other extreme events. The relation between GWs and storms is illustrated by the snapshot in Fig. 1 of waves radiated by cyclonic storm systems as observed in a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) spectral band by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The retrieved brightness temperature (BT) excursions of the

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Roland A. Madden

waves ( Wallace and Kousky 1968 ) in the stratosphere that were predicted by Matsuno’s theory. In addition, they showed how spectral analysis could be used effectively to detect and to describe these and other synoptic-scale tropospheric waves (e.g., Yanai et al. 1968 ; Wallace and Chang 1969 ; Wallace 1971 ). With this as a background, members of the Synoptic Meteorology Group at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) began work with Line Islands Experiment (LIE) data. The LIE

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D. R. Jackson, A. Gadian, N. P. Hindley, L. Hoffmann, J. Hughes, J. King, T. Moffat-Griffin, A. C. Moss, A. N. Ross, S. B. Vosper, C. J. Wright, and N. J. Mitchell

perturbations T ʹ are found by removing the background temperature state via a fourth-order polynomial fit method as described in Wright et al. (2017) . The 3D S-transform then allows us to measure wave amplitude T ʹ and zonal, meridional, and vertical wavenumbers k , l , and m ( Wright et al. 2017 ). Then, using the relation from Ern et al. (2004) , the momentum flux in the zonal and meridional directions ( M x , M y ) can be computed as where ρ is the background atmospheric density, g is

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