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Andrew C. Martin, F. Martin Ralph, Anna Wilson, Laurel DeHaan, and Brian Kawzenuk

). Ralph et al. (2011) demonstrated that a persistent MFW lengthened atmospheric river conditions during landfall of an AR in Washington, directly leading to large rainfall totals in the affected area. Neiman et al. (2016) documented the case of three consecutive MFWs propagating along the boundary of an AR making landfall in Northern CA. The three waves acted to reinforce baroclinicity in the region of the existing AR and cold front, leading to the longest-duration AR on record at the CA Department

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Hyun Il Choi, Xin-Zhong Liang, and Praveen Kumar

form of Topography-based Hydrological Model (TOPMODEL) into the Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Feedback model (LEAF-2) for land–surface processes in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) in order to represent surface and subsurface downslope lateral transport of groundwater. Mölders and Rühaak (2002) coupled with an atmospheric model a hydrothermodynamic soil–vegetation scheme that incorporates surface and channel runoff. Since the runoff component was solved at a 1-km grid that differs from

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Abedeh Abdolghafoorian and Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction The interactions between land and atmosphere play a significant role in the climate and weather system. Variations in land states affect the atmosphere through their effects on surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and the subsequent impact of those fluxes on the atmosphere vertical structures and mixing processes. Land surface controls on atmospheric boundary layer properties have been well demonstrated (e.g., Ek and Holtslag 2004 ; Gentine et al. 2013 ). Recognizing

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Lucas J. Sterzinger and Adele L. Igel

southward into the Los Angeles basin. The watershed in which snowpack will melt is important to water managers in California and Nevada, who have to plan for needs in historically water-scarce areas. The physics of atmospheric ice, and their representation in models, are more complicated than their liquid counterpart. First, the formation of ice crystals occurs through several mechanisms, many of which are not well understood (e.g., Cantrell and Heymsfield 2005 ; Murray et al. 2012 ). These mechanisms

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

(red line) and melting layer based on radar reflectivity in an atmospheric column, modified after Mizukami et al. (2013) . The on-the-ground rain–snow-transition elevation can be inferred from remotely sensed observations of atmospheric snow level (i.e., the atmospheric elevation at which snow becomes the dominant form of precipitation). Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars ( Johnston et al. 2009 , 2017 ) can estimate the snow level above their locations by identifying the elevation

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James Cleverly, Chao Chen, Nicolas Boulain, Randol Villalobos-Vega, Ralph Faux, Nicole Grant, Qiang Yu, and Derek Eamus

large D on stomatal function ( Ball et al. 1987 ; Leuning 1995 ) were included in the calculation of E 0 by using the Water, Atmosphere, Vegetation, Energy and Solutes (WAVES) model, which is a soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer scheme that employs PM and maintains balance in model complexity among carbon, energy, and water processes ( McCallum et al. 2010 ; Zhang and Dawes 1998 ). 3. Results Surface soil moisture content had a strong influence over atmospheric moisture gradients across each

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

with the southern oscillation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 109 , 813 – 829 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2 Hu , H. , F. Dominguez , Z. Wang , D. A. Lavers , G. Zhang , F. M. Ralph , 2017 : Linking atmospheric river hydrological impacts on the U.S. West Coast to Rossby wave breaking . J. Climate , 30 , 3381 – 3399 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0386.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0386.1 Huning , L. S

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Ryann A. Wakefield, David D. Turner, and Jeffrey B. Basara

1. Introduction Land–atmosphere interactions play a critical role in both the atmospheric water and energy cycle. The sensitivity of the atmosphere to changes in land surface conditions is particularly pronounced in semiarid regions throughout the world ( Guo et al. 2006 ; Koster et al. 2006 ; Dirmeyer 2006 ). Changes in soil moisture and vegetation health alter the partitioning of surface water and energy fluxes, influencing diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and even

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Carolina A. Bieri, Francina Dominguez, and David M. Lawrence

1. Introduction and background Advancing our understanding of the mechanisms by which the land affects the atmosphere can lead to improvements in models of the coupled atmosphere–land–ocean system. Additionally, information gained from these efforts can inform atmospheric prediction on longer time scales, as the land surface is a slowly varying control on atmospheric processes ( Betts et al. 1996 ; National Research Council 2010 ). Enhanced knowledge of the land–atmosphere connection can

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R. Garreaud

heavy and extreme precipitation events in central Chile were associated with atmospheric rivers impinging on the subtropical Andes prior to the arrival of the cold front. The term atmospheric river refers to narrow (<1000 km) but elongated (>2000 km) corridors of intense water vapor transport in the lower troposphere, generally located in the broader warm and prefrontal zone of the polar front and particularly well defined over ocean areas (see Ralph and Dettinger 2011 for a review on atmospheric

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