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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Randal D. Koster

greatly influenced by geography, and the region is susceptible to different varieties of weather including hurricanes, extratropical cyclones, mesoscale systems, heat waves, and drought during the summer months. Mean climate features during JJA over the period 1980–2014 in MERRA-2 are shown in Fig. 1 . Temperature at 2 m tends to decrease with increasing latitude ( Fig. 1a ). Cooler temperatures over the ocean inhibit daytime warming along the coast and higher elevations associated with the

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Bin Guan, Duane E. Waliser, and F. Martin Ralph

time steps during which the grid cell is within any detected AR shape boundary. The overall pattern is characterized by enhanced AR frequencies in midlatitude ocean basins relative to inland and lower/higher-latitude regions, with multiple action centers located in the extratropical North Pacific/Atlantic, southeastern Pacific, South Atlantic, and southern Indian Ocean. The broad pattern is similar to Fig. 2b produced from tARget version 1, although AR frequency is notably increased based on the

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